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Tytuł: Dziecko i dorosły w rozmowie
Autor: Rostańska, Eugenia
Słowa kluczowe: Komunikacja interpersonalna; Dziecko
Data wydania: 2010
Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
Abstrakt: A communication of a child and an adult has a special nature. It is constituted by the differences and similarities between its participants and the importance of the child and adult communication in various life situations, especially in education. A child, as a participant of communication, is subject to the influence of style and means of communication on the part of an adult, which is expressed by means of using diversified linguistic forms, both when creating a relation and showing intentions or, finally, demonstrating oneself and one’s own world. In this world, a child, communicating with an adult, shapes his/her own language and acquires means of using it. In natural communicative situations he/she experiences and tries various linguistic events, such as interactiveness, colloquiality, relativity, affectiveness, authenticity or management, explanation and functioning of events. Through a contact with an adult, a child created his/her own linguistic and communicative capital. It is though important and taken into account at all education levels. A teacher, communicating with a child in first years of his/her school education, accepts an a priori assumption that experiences and communicative abilities are defined and adjusted to learning needs, corresponding to the communicative forms of teaching. A child, coming to school, is already shaped by experiences and communication abilities because of an every-day, natural and family communication, as well as the one typical of the environment in which he/she lived. The pedagogy of small child, a definition of features and relationships in communication with an adult, brings about an efficient teaching and education. In this context, a primary reference of communication in education, especially for children who start the very education, is a child-adult relation, the characteristic variant of which, deriving from the primacy of educational aims and tasks is a child-teacher communication. A child- adult communication is a specific meeting of man with man. The specificity consists in an overlap of similarities to any type of meetings with otherness, resulting from the features of its participants. The very similarity can be referred to the particularity of an interpersonal communication the qualities of which characterize the following type of a meeting: through speaking to communicating. Otherness, on the other hand, can be defined by the elements of communication which refer to the sphere of interpersonal contacts from the point of the relationships and mutual influences, the communication aim, and, above all, the differences of intentions and experiences stuck in the child’s and adult’s awareness. What is important is the structure of linguistic utterances in the act of communication. Experiencing communication in which a child participates and situations are formed with changing components where a change can create new rules and forms of communication is dynamic and continuous in nature. The changeability of usage rules, when the language is stable, creates the changeability of communication situations. In interpersonal contacts, in communication, Speaking plays a special role in interpersonal contacts and communication, and situations, and meetings of people communicating with one another in communicative situations. Communication was a subject of linguistic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic analyses. The pedagogic studies were largely related to the diagnosis by an interlocutor or its effectiveness to the educational aims. However, it seems that a full description of its functioning requires a transdisciplinary approach, especially when the research area defines the age of a child beginning the school education or being an early-school class learner. In order to understand the child’s development to shape his/her education in an efficient way, one cannot avoid the questions on communicating with an adult, communication experiences and behaviours, as well as abilities deriving from the very experiences. The specificity of child’s contact involves both the asymmetry of its participants’ relationship and the asymmetry of abilities, as well as language habits, intentions and differences in seeing the world and him/herself in it, the uniqueness and transience of the phenomenon of conversation. Thus, the question is: Which communication does the child experience communicating with an adult? This is a question both on the structure, course, interactivity, relationships, but also the very elements of communication which are characteristic of education: explanation, transmission and reception of meanings or creation of an active sphere. The subject of my research interests and aim of the work is such a description of a child-adult conversation which allows for exploring its particular elements and in-between relations. Thus, it is a structural and functional interpretation of child’s conversation with an adult which analyses communicative behaviours of conversation participants in the analysis units constituting child’s and adult’s utterances taking on the form of colloquial statements in the conversation. The very work is an attempt to describe a child’s conversation with an adult the aim of which lies in improving the forms of communication between people, especially between an adult and a child in the aspect of early-school education. The work is a material presentation. The description categories are illustrated whereas the examples of utterances are selected from conversations between a child and an adult taking place in different situations, in different places and on different topics. The work is not aimed at being a demonstration of the force of illustrated phenomena or the frequency of their appearance. The potentiality of the language makes something that happened once happen repeatedly in undefined communicative situations. The results of the analysis, presented as a description of categories creating the specificity of conversation, were presented in three areas: the structure of conversation, the experience of communication and educational references which are stuck in child’s communication with an adult.
ISBN: 9788322618134
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