Andrzej Wajda; twórczość; interpretacja; krytyka
Katowice : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
The fundamental objective of this study was an attempt to describe
the complex relations between the screen creations of A. Wajda
and the plastic arts.
The thesis ordering this reasoning is the conviction that the relations
between various kinds of artistic expression are governed
by the process of adaptation for the cinema of literary works and
are manifested above all in the transference of iconographie symbols
by means of titles, allusions, quotations and in the actual filming
of works of plastic arte. The iconographie programme is located, in
the opinion of the present author, at a level mediating between a
literary and a cinematic communication. Hence the paramount criterion
is the attitude of the film director to the models of a tradition
uncovering the sphere of aesthetic and ideological principles
which decide the nature of the relation between arts, that is
the method of perceiving the world, types of generalisations, means
of depicting etc.
In the first part of this article are presented the chief theoretical
problems met with in comparative research on the artistic
works of A. Wajda. The author makes an analysis of the critical reflections
reported up to now, coming to the conclusion that this
artist exploits the plastic arts inspirations rather more according
to the conditioned cognitive needs of his interests and the immediate ideological situation than according to a clearly defined creative
programme. His fila output is subject to the influence of the
neoRomantic tradition, the Baroque, modernist and surrealist traditions.
T^is evaluation is also confiraed by the formulated poetics
of A. Wajda, in which the present author discerns a significant influence
exerted by the ideas of Oacek Malczewski, Stanislaw Wyspiański.
Andrzej Wróblewski and the theories of Serge Eisenstein. The
author perceives original elements of the plastic arts context in
which the films of the Polish director are realised! in the film
"Wszystko na sprzedaż" (Everything for sale) which is placed on the
boundary between formulated poetics and immanent poetics.
In the second part of the article an analysis of Wajda's screen
works is given. Films about art directed by Wajda complement his feature
films in the ideological-artistic plane and represent a
proof that realistically integrated depiction remains in antinomic
synthesis with the symbolic depiction. Basing on analysis of the
historical films, however, the author shows that the screen substantiation
of plastic inferences^ existing in the literary^ prototypes
serve the artiet for criticism of the magical concept of historical
thinking. In the final part of this chapter the1 author describee
three methods for creating the plastic context of a film in the situation
where the literary work adapted for the screen does not evoke
a clearly distinguishable j iconic code. The director finds the key
to interpretation in another work by the same writer, making use
of the method of stylistic permutation or else creates a work balanced
on the borders of the poetic film and cinematic painting.
In the opinion of the author, A. Wajda consistently produces his
films basing on his'own model of the cinema, integrating the elements
of literary, theatrical and plastic content, which is expressed
in eclection and pluralism of form and in the ideology of historism
and iconographic gravitation. Thus analysis of the plastic
arts context reveals original characteristics in A.Wajda s artistic
programme, allowing its essence and serise to bei better understood.