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Title: Origin and significance of saccharides during initial pedogenesis in a temperate climate region
Authors: Marynowski, Leszek
Rahmonov, Oimahmad
Smolarek-Łach, Justyna
Rybicki, Maciej
Simoneit, Bernd R.T.
Keywords: Saccharides; Lipid biomarkers; Initial pedogenesis; Soil crust formation; Sucrose Trehalose
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: Geoderma, Vol. 361 (2020), Art. No. 114064
Abstract: Saccharides are common constituents of soils, but their role and origin in the initial phases of pedogenesis remain unclear. Here we show the detailed composition of neutral sugars extracted from arenosols at different development stages, combined with additional lipids of diverse origins using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). During the first stage (I) of development sucrose is the most abundant saccharide in the soil crust at up to 45,000 μg/g TOC. Sucrose is also the predominant compound in the second and third development stages, but its concentration decreased to the range of 1600 to 16,000 μg/g TOC. Stages II and III of soil development were characterized by a gradual increase in arabitol, mannitol and trehalose, compounds typical for fungi and lichen. Their abundances increased from several percent (compared to the major sucrose) to 10–32% for mannitol and 34–54% for trehalose. Moreover, in stage III there was a considerable increase in the contents of the saccharides: pinitol, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, arabinose, together with non-sugar compounds: dehydroabietic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid and sitosterol. All these latter compounds are higher plant markers, mainly derived from conifer detritus. The relationships between the ratios of trehalose/sucrose vs. (mannitol + arabitol)/sucrose and TOC vs. (mannitol + arabitol)/sucrose differentiated precisely the top soil layer of arenosols which are covered by different stages of biological soil crust. Our study shows that free sugars, supplemented by lipid biomarkers and total organic carbon contents, are good indicators of soil in the initial phase of pedogenesis.
DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2019.114064
ISSN: 0016-7061
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