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Title: Unique Fine Morphology of Mouthparts in Haematoloecha nigrorufa (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Adapted to Millipede Feeding
Authors: Wang, Yan
Zhang, Junru
Wang, Wanshan
Brożek, Jolanta
Dai, Wu
Keywords: Reduviidae; mouthparts; sensillum; feeding; predation
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: Insects, Vol. 11 (2020), Art. No. 386
Abstract: Millipede assassin bugs are a diverse group of specialized millipede predators. However, the feeding behavior of Ectrichodiinae remains poorly known, especially how the mouthpart structures relate to various functions in feeding. In this study, fine morphology of the mouthparts and feeding performance of Haematoloecha nigrorufa (Stål, 1867) was observed and described in detail for the first time. The triangular labrum is divided by a conspicuous transverse membrane into a strongly sclerotized basilabrum and a less sclerotized distilabrum. Fifteen types of sensilla are distributed on the mouthparts. Each mandibular stylet has an expanded spatulate apex and about 150 approximately transverse ridges on the external middle side; these help in penetrating the ventral trunk area and the intersegmental membranes of millipede prey. The right maxilla is tapered. On the internal surface are a row dorsal short bristles near the apex and a row of ventral bristles preapically. A longitudinal row of long lamellate structures extend proximate for a considerable distance, lie entirely within the food canal, and bear several short spines and short bristles. There is no obvious di erence between males and females in the distribution, number, and types of sensilla on mouthparts. The adult feeding process involves several steps, including searching and capturing prey, paralyzing prey, a resting phase, and a feeding phase. The evolution of the mouthpart morphology and the putative functional significance of their sensilla are discussed, providing insight into the structure and function of the mouthparts adapted for millipede feeding.
DOI: 10.3390/insects11060386
ISSN: 2075-4450
Appears in Collections:Artykuły (WNP)

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