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Title: In Search of New Therapeutics—Molecular Aspects of the PCOS Pathophysiology: Genetics, Hormones, Metabolism and Beyond
Authors: Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata
Kowalczyk, Karolina
Trybek, Paulina
Jarosz, Tomasz
Radosz, Patrycja
Setlak, Marcin
Madej, Paweł
Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); molecular mechanism; novel therapies; inositols; GABA; kisspeptin; berberine; naringenin; AQPs-oriented therapy
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 21 (2020), Art. No. 7054
Abstract: In a healthy female reproductive system, a subtle hormonal and metabolic dance leads to repetitive cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus, which make an effective ovulation and potential implantation of an embryo possible. However, that is not so in the case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in which case the central mechanism responsible for entraining hormonal and metabolic rhythms during the menstrual cycle is notably disrupted. In this review we provide a detailed description of the possible scenario of PCOS pathogenesis. We begin from the analysis of how a set of genetic disorders related to PCOS leads to particular malfunctions at a molecular level (e.g., increased enzyme activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) type 17A1 (17a-hydroxylase), 3b-HSD type II and CYP type 11A1 (side-chain cleavage enzyme) in theca cells, or changes in the expression of aquaporins in granulosa cells) and discuss further cellular- and tissue-level consequences (e.g., anovulation, elevated levels of the advanced glycation end products in ovaries), which in turn lead to the observed subsequent systemic symptoms. Since gene-editing therapy is currently out of reach, herein special emphasis is placed on discussing what kinds of drug targets and which potentially active substances seem promising for an effective medication, acting on the primary causes of PCOS on a molecular level.
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21197054
ISSN: 1661-6596
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