Skip navigation

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Chemical and Phase Reactions on the Contact between Refractory Materials and Slags, a Case from the 19th Century Zn-Pb Smelter in Ruda S´ la˛ska, Poland
Authors: Kupczak, Krzysztof
Warchulski, Rafał
Dulski, Mateusz
Środek, Dorota
Keywords: slags; refractory material; zinc; lead; smelting; metallurgy
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: "Minerals" (2020), vol. 10, iss. 11, art. no. 1006, s. 1-19
Abstract: Slags from the historic metallurgy of Zn-Pb ores are known for unique chemical and phase compositions. The oxides, silicates, aluminosilicates, and amorphous phases present therein often contain in the structure elements that are rare in natural conditions, such as Zn, Pb, As. The study focuses on processes occurring on the contact of the melted batch and the refractory materials that build the furnace, which lead to the formation of these phases. To describe them, chemical (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and petrological ((X-ray di raction (XRD), electron probe micro-analyses (EPMA), Raman spectroscopy) analyses were performed on refractory material, slag, and contact of both. Two main types of reactions have been distinguished: gas/fluid- refractories and liquid- refractories. The first of them enrich the refractories with elements that migrate with the gas (Pb, K, Na, As, Zn) and transport the components building it (Fe, Mg, Ca) inward. Reactions between melted batch and refractory materials through gravitational di erentiation and the melting of refractories lead to the formation of an aluminosilicate liquid with a high content of heavy elements. Cooling of this melt causes crystallization of minerals characteristic for slag, but with a modified composition, such as Fe-rich pyroxenes, Pb-rich K-feldspar, or PbO-As2O3-SiO2 glass.
DOI: 10.3390/min10111006
ISSN: 2075-163X
Appears in Collections:Artykuły (WNP)

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Kupczak_Warchulski_chemical_and_phase_reactions.pdf3,86 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Show full item record

Uznanie Autorstwa 3.0 Polska Creative Commons License Creative Commons