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Title: Impact of the chain length and topology of the acetylated oligosaccharide on the crystallization tendency of naproxen from amorphous binary mixtures
Authors: Minecka, Aldona
Tarnacka, Magdalena
Jurkiewicz, Karolina
Hachuła, Barbara
Wrzalik, Roman
Kamiński, Kamil
Paluch, Marian
Kamińska, Ewa
Keywords: naproxen; acetylated saccharides; binary mixtures; chain length; topology; crystallization tendency
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "Molecular Pharmaceutics" (2021) iss. 1, s. 347-358
Abstract: The impact of the chain length or dispersity of polymers in controlling the crystallization of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has been discussed for a long time. However, because of the weak control of these parameters in the majority of macromolecules used in pharmaceutical formulations, the abovementioned topic is poorly understood. Herein, four acetylated oligosaccharides, maltose (acMAL), raffinose (acRAF), stachyose (acSTA), and α-cyclodextrin (ac-α-CD) of growing chain lengths and different topologies (linear vs cyclic), mimicking the growing backbone of the polymer, were selected to probe the influence of these structural factors on the crystallization of naproxen (NAP)an API that does not vitrify regardless of the cooling rate applied in our experiment. It was found that in equimolar systems composed of NAP and linear acetylated oligosaccharides, the progress and activation barrier for crystallization are dependent on the molecular weight of the excipient despite the fact that results of Fourier transform infrared studies indicated that there is no difference in the interaction pattern between measured samples. On the other hand, complementary dielectric, calorimetric, and X-ray diffraction data clearly demonstrated that NAP mixed with ac-α-CD (cyclic saccharide) does not tend to crystallize even in the system with a much higher content of APIs. To explain this interesting finding, we have carried out further density functional theory computations, which revealed that incorporation of NAP into the cavity of ac- α-CD is hardly possible because this state is of much higher energy (up to 80 kJ/mol) with respect to the one where the API is located outside of the saccharide torus. Hence, although at the moment, it is very difficult to explain the much stronger impact of the cyclic saccharide on the suppression of crystallization and enhanced stability of NAP with respect to the linear carbohydrates, our studies clearly showed that the chain length and the topology of the excipient play a significant role in controlling the crystallization of this API.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c00982
ISSN: 1543-8392
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