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Title: Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis by CRISPR/Cas9triggers cell wall remodelling in carrot
Authors: Godel-Jędrychowska, Kamila
Sala, Katarzyna
Milewska-Hendel, Anna
Zubko, Maciej
Kurczyńska, Ewa
Oleszkiewicz, Tomasz
Klimek-Chodacka, Magdalena
Kruczek, Michał
Qi, Yiping
Barański, Rafał
Keywords: arabinogalactan protein; callus; Cas9 protein; chromoplasts; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats; CRISPR; pectins; phytoene synthase; plastid ultrastructure
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "International Journal of Molecular Sciences" (2021), iss. 12, art. no. 6516, s. 1-23
Abstract: Recent data indicate that modifications to carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants alter the expression of genes affecting chemical composition of the cell wall. Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a rate limiting factor of carotenoid biosynthesis and it may exhibit species-specific and organ-specific roles determined by the presence of psy paralogous genes, the importance of which often remains unrevealed. Thus, the aim of this work was to elaborate the roles of two psy paralogs in a model system and to reveal biochemical changes in the cell wall of psy knockout mutants. For this purpose, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (Cas9) proteins (CRISPR/Cas9) vectors were introduced to carotenoid-rich carrot (Daucus carota) callus cells in order to induce mutations in the psy1 and psy2 genes. Gene sequencing, expression analysis, and carotenoid content analysis revealed that the psy2 gene is critical for carotenoid biosynthesis in this model and its knockout blocks carotenogenesis. The psy2 knockout also decreased the expression of the psy1 paralog. Immunohistochemical staining of the psy2 mutant cells showed altered composition of arabinogalactan proteins, pectins, and extensins in the mutant cell walls. In particular, low-methylesterified pectins were abundantly present in the cell walls of carotenoidrich callus in contrast to the carotenoid-free psy2 mutant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed altered plastid transition to amyloplasts instead of chromoplasts. The results demonstrate for the first time that the inhibited biosynthesis of carotenoids triggers the cell wall remodelling.
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22126516
ISSN: 1422-0067
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