|Title:||Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water environment of Poland : a review|
Witkowski, Andrzej J.
|Keywords:||PPCPs; emerging contaminants; wastewater; surface water; groundwater; water quality|
|Citation:||"Water" (2021), Vol. 13, iss. 16 (2021), art. no. 2283, s. 1-30|
|Abstract:||The issue of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water environment has gained increasing interest worldwide. To determine the nature and extent of this problem for Poland, this paper presents a review of research on the presence of PPCPs in Poland, looking at results for different water samples, including wastewater (before and after treatment), landfill leachate, surface water (standing water bodies and rivers), seawater, groundwater and drinking water. The review is based on over 50 scientific articles and dissertations referring to studies of PPCPs. It also briefly outlines possible sources and the fate of PPCPs in the aquatic environment. The review of Polish research has revealed that studies have previously covered at least 39 PPCP groups (270 compounds in total). These studies focused mainly on wastewater and rivers, and only a few concerned landfill leachate and seawater. They most often reported on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. The highest concentrations of the analysed PPCPs were found mainly in raw wastewater (e.g., naproxen, up to 551,960 ng/L), but they were also occasionally found in surface water (e.g., azithromycin, erythromycin, irbesartan and metoprolol) and in groundwater (e.g., N,Ndiethyl- meta-toluamide, known as DEET, up to 17,280 ng/L). Extremely high concentrations of bisphenol A (up to 2,202,000 ng/L) and diclofenac (up to 108,340 ng/L) were found in landfill leachate. Although numerous substances have been detected, PPCPs are still not monitored regularly, which makes it difficult to obtain a clear understanding of their incidence in the water environment.|
|Appears in Collections:||Artykuły (WNP)|
|Slosarczyk_Rozkowski_occurence_of_pharmaceuticals_and_personal.pdf||4,37 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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