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Title: Real-time back surface landmark determination using a Time-of-Flight camera
Authors: Ledwoń, Daniel
Danch-Wierzchowska, Marta
Bugdol, Marcin
Bibrowicz, Karol
Szurmik, Tomasz
Myśliwiec, Andrzej
Mitas, Andrzej W.
Keywords: anatomical landmarks; real-time detection; trunk surfacemetrics; physiotherapy; point cloud
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "Sensors" Vol. 21, iss. 19 (2021), art. no. 6425
Abstract: Postural disorders, their prevention, and therapies are still growing modern problems. The currently used diagnostic methods are questionable due to the exposure to side effects (radiological methods) as well as being time-consuming and subjective (manual methods). Although the computer-aided diagnosis of posture disorders is well developed, there is still the need to improve existing solutions, search for new measurement methods, and create new algorithms for data processing. Based on point clouds from a Time-of-Flight camera, the presented method allows a non-contact, real-time detection of anatomical landmarks on the subject’s back and, thus, an objective determination of trunk surface metrics. Based on a comparison of the obtained results with the evaluation of three independent experts, the accuracy of the obtained results was confirmed. The average distance between the expert indications and method results for all landmarks was 27.73 mm. A direct comparison showed that the compared differences were statically significantly different; however, the effect was negligible. Compared with other automatic anatomical landmark detection methods, ours has a similar accuracy with the possibility of real-time analysis. The advantages of the presented method are non-invasiveness, non-contact, and the possibility of continuous observation, also during exercise. The proposed solution is another step in the general trend of objectivization in physiotherapeutic diagnostics.
DOI: 10.3390/s21196425
ISSN: 1424-8220
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