work ethic; organization culture; economic growth; innovation; flexibility
Chowanna, 2010, t. 2, s. 77-97
The article presents the relations between culture, economic growth and innovation.
Some values, norms and attitudes are connected with economic growth while the
others are connected with its lack. The article shows the values and norms that can be
regarded as cultural factors of economic growth. Cultural factors connected with predictability
such as effective time management and trust in social system favoured industrialization.
Economic growth is connected with the following elements of culture: religion
that praise people accumulating wealth (pharisaic religion), belief in the individual and
freedom of action, tightness (norms are imposed tightly), and belief that wealth is something
that does not exist yet. Other values such as acceptance of competition, saving
money and work ethic are also very important. Some values are important for discipline
and production (work ethic) and are components of tight, bureaucratic cultures with low
equifinality. On the other hand, other values (independence, freedom of action) are important
for creativity, which seems to be crucial when planning production. These values
are components of flexible cultures. Creativity is the feature of flexible cultures with high
equifinality. The factors of innovation are both in tight and flexible cultures. Organization
connecting these both cultures is metaflexible and does not accept neither excessive
flexibility (chaos) nor excessive tightness (excessive bureaucracy).