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Title: Does age pay off? Effects of three-generational experiments of nanodiamond exposure and withdrawal in wild and longevity-selected model animals
Authors: Augustyniak, Maria
Babczyńska, Agnieszka
Dziewięcka, Marta
Flasz, Barbara
Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia
Kędziorski, Andrzej
Mazur, Beata
Rozpędek, Katarzyna
Seyed Alian, Reyhaneh
Skowronek, Magdalena
Świerczek, Ewa
Świętek, Agata
Tarnawska, Monika
Wiśniewska, Klaudia
Ziętara, Patrycja
Keywords: Acheta domesticus; Oxidative stress; DNA damage; ATM-Dependent phosphorylation of H2A.X; Defensins; Apoptosis and autophagy
Issue Date: 2022
Citation: Chemosphere, Vol. 303, Pt. 2 (2022), art. no. 135129
Abstract: Nanodiamonds (NDs) are considered a material with low toxicity. However, no studies describe the effects of ND withdrawal after multigenerational exposure. The aim was to evaluate ND exposure (in the 1st and 2nd generations) effects at low concentrations (0.2 or 2 mg kg_ 1) and withdrawal (in the 3rd generation) in the wild (H) and longevity-selected (D) model insect Acheta domesticus. We measured selected oxidative stress parameters, immunity, types of cell death, and DNA damage. Most of the results obtained in the 1st generation, e.g., catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), heat shock proteins (HSP70), defensins, or apoptosis level, confirmed no significant toxicity of low doses of NDs. Interestingly, strain-specific differences were observed. D-strain crickets reduced autophagy, the number of ROS+ cells, and DNA damage. The effect can be a symptom of mobilization of the organism and stimulation of physiological defense mechanisms in long-living organisms. The 2nd-generation D-strain insects fed ND-spiked food at higher concentrations manifested a reduction in CAT, TAC, early apoptosis, and DNA damage, together with an increase in HSP70 and defensins. ROS+ cells and cells with reduced membrane potential and autophagy did not differ significantly from the control. H-strain insects revealed a higher number of ROS+ cells and cells with reduced membrane potential, decreased CAT activity, and early apoptosis. Elimination of NDs from the diet in the 3rd generation did not cause full recovery of the measured parameters. We noticed an increase in the concentration of HSP70 and defensins (H-strain) and a decrease in apoptosis (D-strain). However, the most visible increase was a significant increase in DNA damage, especially in H-strain individuals. The results suggest prolonged adverse effects of NDs on cellular functions, reaching beyond “contact time” with these particles. Unintentional and/or uncontrolled ND pollution of the environment poses a new challenge for all organisms inhabiting it, particularly during multigenerational exposure.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135129
ISSN: 0045-6535
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