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Tytuł: Jedność wielości: świat, człowiek, państwo w refleksji nurtu orficko-pitagorejskiego
Autor: Świercz, Piotr
Słowa kluczowe: Orphic-pythagorean current; Orphism; Greek philosophy
Data wydania: 2008
Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
Abstrakt: The main aim of this thesis is to show cosmological, anthropological and politicallegal aspects of the orphic-pythagorean current as well as to make an attempt to systematize them. As the systematizing rule the title issue of the unity of multiplicity was adopted, since this is the central idea both in orphism and in pythagoreanism. The issue of the unity of multiplicity which constitutes the fundamental idea of orphism was reflected both in the cosmogonic-theogonic aspect and in the anthropogenicsoteriologic perspective. The unity of multiplicity in cosmogony and in theogony was expressed mostly in the unifying role of Zeus and in the transformations of Phanes (Eros, Protogonos), whose successive forms (Zeus, Zagreus, Dionysos) guaranteed somehow the maintenance of the unity of gods succession. This unity can be found or rather discerned in the orphic mysteries. Since the information concerning the orphic worship is very skimpy, thus the only basic theory to be approved is that orphism propagated the worship of one god, although it did not mean the resignation from the polytheistic tradition, treated however in a very special way, which, as it seems, used to have many continuators in the Greek philosophy. The issue of the unity of multiplicity is the key idea in anthropogony and soteriology, too. The unifying aspect is Dionysos mind; the aspect which, in turn, contributes to the multiplicity is the titanic heritage non-rational parts of soul and body. This apparently simple concept becomes elaborate along with the immortality of the rational soul. It is only the rational soul that can gain the eternal life. This means, however, that a human as such, who is the complex of Dionysos and Titan, exists only in the earthly (mortal) life or more precisely: in the circle of incarnations. The Soul freed from this circle as a result of leading the orphic life, returns to the divinity where it originated. But it is no longer de facto human. It is god. Such a concept of a human has significant consequences for political ideas, because it leads to rejecting the politics understood as a tool for satisfying the titanic needs (desire for power, wealth, fame etc.). Instead of this orphism firstly offers the shelter in privacy, secondly it forms the basis for the Pythagorean-Platonic concept of the true political art. The main problem assumed by the Pythagoreans from orphism is the unity of multiplicity. Expression of this issue by means of mathematical language leads on the one hand to discussion concerning the status of One and Monad both mathematical and noetic, on the other hand to the issue of uneven parity and even parity numbers. Mathematical research as well as medical and music researches lead the Pythagoreans to the problem of the Law of the cosmos the Law is an element introducing unity in the cosmos. The issues of the cognition of Law and acting in accordance with it, concern in the Pythagorean doctrine two spheres of human activity: philosophy and politics. These two spheres are however inseparable. Philosophy comprises also politics, because wisdom, which is an aim of philosophy, concerns as well the problem of polis. However, a philosopher is not fully a philosopher not only without comprehending the political rules, but also without possessing political virtues, understood as virtues enabling the harmonization of non-rational parts of the soul relative to the rational part. The political knowledge is then a necessary element of wisdom, whereas political virtues are the necessary elements of Virtue. This unity of wisdom is perfectly illustrated by that what constitutes the subject of philosophy as ontology and philosophy as politics. Both cases concern understanding what is ¢rc». The ambiguity of this term in ancient Greek turns out to be apparent with reference to the highest law of the cosmos: since it expresses just multifacetedness of the singular rule, similarly to the orphic polytheism. […] Jurisprudence and legislation become then the most important attributes of a philosopher both of an ontologist and of a politician. The cognition of law and the ability to translate it to the state laws are the conditions of the true political art (both in the Pythagorean concepts, and in those of Plato’s) which should be understood not as the utopian project of the ideal polis, but as the description of the healthy polis that is the polis in accordance with nature.
ISBN: 978-83-226-1762-5
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