presupposition; presumption; Homer; cognitive characteristics of presumption; Greek epistemological thought; dόξα; δοκέω
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
Folia Philosophica, T. 34 (2015), s. 33-59
The objective of this article is to determine the sources of the philosophical notion of dÒxa, understood as presumption. The analyses presented here focus upon the gnoseological content of the concept of presumption as it occurs in poetry traditionally attributed to Homer (the Iliad, the Odyssey,1 the so-called Homeric Hymns). Two fundamental aspects of such content give the concept of dÒxa its philosophical significance: its objective aspect and its subjective aspect. The complexity of the problematic mutual relationship between them manifests
itself with particular clarity in lexis beloging to the semantic group of the verb dokšω, which,
for the purposes of the present study, is hereby described as a group expressing presupposition
limited to the present. The reflections and analyses presented in this article allow one to determine the critical foundations of the Greek epistemological thought, whose actual point of departure is the problem of the status of the presupposition and its relationship to the concepts of truth and knowledge.