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Title: Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cell wall components and prenyl lipids in the leaves of Tilia x euchlora trees growing under salt stress
Authors: Milewska-Hendel, Anna
Baczewska, Aneta H.
Sala, Katarzyna
Dmuchowski, Wojciech
Brągoszewska, Paulina
Gozdowski, Dariusz
Jóźwiak, Adam
Chojnacki, Tadeusz
Swieżewska, Ewa
Kurczyńska, Ewa
Keywords: cell component; prenyl lipids; Tilia x euchlora
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: PLoS ONE, Vol. 12, iss. 2 (2017), art. no. e0172682, s. 1-25
Abstract: The study was focused on assessing the presence of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins within the cell walls as well as prenyl lipids, sodium and chlorine content in leaves of Tilia x euchlora trees. The leaves that were analyzed were collected from trees with and without signs of damage that were all growing in the same salt stress conditions. The reason for undertaking these investigations was the observations over many years that indicated that there are trees that present a healthy appearance and trees that have visible symptoms of decay in the same habitat. Leaf samples were collected from trees growing in the median strip between roadways that have been intensively salted during the winter season for many years. The sodium content was determined using atomic spectrophotometry, chloride using potentiometric titration and poly-isoprenoids using HPLC/UV. AGPs and pectins were determined using immunohistochemistry methods. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that rhamnogalacturonans I (RG-I) and homogalacturonans were differentially distributed in leaves from healthy trees in contrast to leaves from injured trees. In the case of AGPs, the most visible difference was the presence of the JIM16 epitope. Chemical analyses of sodium and chloride showed that in the leaves from injured trees, the level of these ions was higher than in the leaves from healthy trees. Based on chromatographic analysis, four polyisoprenoid alcohols were identified in the leaves of T. x euchlora. The levels of these lipids were higher in the leaves from healthy trees. The results suggest that the differences that were detected in the apoplast and symplasm may be part of the defensive strategy of T. x euchlora trees to salt stress, which rely on changes in the chemical composition of the cell wall with respect to the pectic and AGP epitopes and an increased synthesis of prenyl lipids.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172682
ISSN: 1932-6203
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