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Title: Individual traits, environmental variables and students’ perceptions of autonomous learning difficulty
Authors: Studenska, Anna
Keywords: Autonomy; difficulty; learning; support; family; school
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, Vol. 31 (2017), s. 92-106
Abstract: Learner autonomy is currently regarded as an important educational aim. Therefore the main research problem was formulated as follows: which selected individual traits and environmental variables correlate with how students perceive the difficulty of their autonomous learning? The hypothesized relationships between research variables were presented in the form of a model. The main aim of the study was to verify the model in which temperamental traits and autonomy support from teachers and parents are treated as independent variables, student`s autonomy, self-efficacy as a learner, learning motivation and preferences towards autonomous tasks - as mediating variables and perceived autonomous learning difficulty – as a dependent variable. Autonomous learning difficulty was measured by a questionnaire encompassing difficulty in reflective evaluation of learning, motivation to learn and planning. Temperamental traits were measured by EAS Questionnaire, general autonomy by Adolescent Autonomy Questionnaire created by Noom (1999) and co-workers. Questionnaires measuring remaining variables were constructed for the purpose of the research. The participants were 454 students of middle and secondary school. Autonomous learning difficulty questionnaire proved to be reliable and valid. Student`s self‑ efficacy and autonomy were most strongly related to autonomous learning difficulty. Student`s perception of high autonomous learning difficulty was related to the low level of parental autonomy support. The relationships hypothesized in the model can be generalized to population but the model does not explain satisfactory amount of dependent variable variance.
DOI: 10.15405/epsbs.2017.10.10
ISSN: 2357-1330
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