|Abstract: ||The work is a linguistic analysis of metatextual expressions of a phatic function in
a Slavonic confrontational Polish-Czech-Russian perspective.
It is difficult to imagine an every-day linguistic communication without metatextual
expressions of a phatic function. They give conversations appropriate dynamism,
activate speaker’s perception and constitute an important constructive element of
conversation they combine, value and segment. The adjustment of the metatext to the
subject text does not exclude the former from generating the spoken text. Metatextual
expressions cocreate a semantic and formal structure of the spoken discourse and are
often an element reinforcing different interactive actions.
A frequent treatment of phatic auxiliaries in the literature of the subject makes it
difficult to define their functions in the spoken language which are different depending
on their particular types. Likewise, different Polish, Czech and Russian metatextual
formations are created on their basis. A separate linguistic analysis of Polish metatextual
units proposed in the work allows for a more precise definition of their possible
equivalents in the Czech and Russian language, and makes it easier to indicate similarities
and differences in their functioning.
The aim of the work is to present a phatic metatext as a constructive element of
the spoken dialogue which thanks to it becomes more fluent, communicative and organised.
The first and second chapters are devoted to theoretical aspects connected with the
research in question.
Chapter Metatextual expressions in Polish, Czech and Russian linguistics is on the
one hand an overview of theoretical assumptions about the metatext and the current
state of its studies, and on the other a proposal for defining the status of such expressions.
The second chapter presents metatextual expressions of a phatic function being the
object of teh analysis, and defines the principles of their classification. The basis of the
phatic auxiliary division, despite desemantisation and movement of their function, was their primary semantics, that it basic categories of ordering the world through language.
Ther empirical part opens the third chapter devoted to the most frequently used
auxiliary in the spoken Polish language wiesz, and its Czech and Russian equivalents.
A dominating functionn of these auxiliaries is maintaining contact with the speaker,
and, thus, miantaining appropraite dynamism of the communication process. Wiesz /
víš / ae organise the transmission process alone, opening and closing an informative
field they often influence. That is why they often perform a persuasive and expressive
function. A detailed analysis of wiesz / víš / ae and its different sequences
shows how important a constructive element they are for the discourse.
Auxiliaries rozumiesz / rozumíš (chápeš) / no u ae described in chapter four
have similar fetaures. What pays attention is their primary semantic function, namely
umderstanding referring to basic skills enabling communication, i.e. mesage coding
and decoding, or de facto controlling the course of the communication process.
The principle of a selective analysis of metatextual expressions is confirmed by the
group of “thinking-imaginative” expressions analysed in chapter five. The task of these
auxiliaries is to stimulate a given mental state of the speaker, which makes the phatic
function performed by them often replaced with the persuasive and expressive one.
A description of the Polish auxiliary słuchaj and its Czech and Russian equivalents
in chapter six confirms the specificity of this group of “strong” metatextual expressions.
“Auditory” auxiliaries are important initial phatic signals of the dsicourse, allowing
for e.g. a fluent shift of conversation topic. Thay are also potential elements of
a persuasive strategy shaping speaker’s evaluation or opinion.
Chapter seven is devoted to “visual” metatextual auxiliaries of patrz(po)patrz /
u / (po)dívej (se) type, often skipped in works concerning a description of
phatic signals. It might derive from their semantics alone which refers to the sense less
used in the process of linguistic communication. The phatic function is not their dominating
function. What is important constitutes the differences between the functioning
of the Polish visual auxiliaries and their Czech and Russian equivalents, which often
disables a mutual auxiliary substitution.
The analysis of Polish, Czech and Russian metatextual elements creating motivating
questions in given languages presented in chapter seven shows the specificity of
the functioning of the most diversified and at the same time formally different group of
metatextual expressions of a phatic function.
The work pays attention to doubts concerning the translatability of units desemanticised
to a large extent the description of which is more a description of function and
context than their meaning. The complexity of aspects connected with the principles of
both intra and interlinguistic substitution of metatextual expressions, as well as the bounderies
of their mutual functional suitability were emphasised.|