The aim of this monograph is to examine the skeleton of alate morphs of
aphids. Drawings of 24 aphid species in dorsal, ventral and lateral view were
prepared on the basis of three-dimensional preparations preserved in glycerol.
The morphology of head and thorax of the representatives of all aphid
families and most aphid tribes was studied. An attempt was made to reconstruct
the phylogeny of aphids on the basis of thus obtained morphological
data. An analysis of cladograms has shown that there is no phylogenetic relation
between Adelgidae and Phylloxeridae. Within viviparous aphids, two
developmental lines can be distinguished: Hormaphididae, Pemphigidae, and
Phloeomyzidae on the one hand, and Mindaridae, Thelaxidae, Anoeciidae,
Drepanosiphidae, Greenideidae, Lachnidae, and Aphididae on the other. An
analysis of the direction of changes in the skeleton of Sternorrhyncha was
undertaken. It has been established that, with regard to morphology, Aleyrodomorpha
constitute a distinctly separate group. At the same times, a close
relationship between Aphidomorpha and Coccomorpha has been confirmed.
Psyllomorpha are a sister group of aphids and scale insects.