The book is devoted to the problems of analyzing and evaluating arguments based on similarity and analogy. Arguments of this sort play a significant role both in philosophical and everyday reasoning. Generally, the author adopts a point of view typical of an informal logic, seeking out methods fitting in an effective and practical evaluation of arguments of the type under consideration. After a critical discussion of approaches known from the literature of the subject including “hidden generalization” and the most common “standard” approach, the new interpretation of the structure of analogical reasoning is put forward. Arguments are treated in the framework of so called multiconstraint theory of analogy, which provides a useful tool of examination of arguments by analogy and spotting typical flaws in them.