|Abstract: ||Proposed in this work wide cultural aspect of translation, focused on the target culture, was displayed from the two perspectives. Firstly, an important thread of the most recent translation studies allows to show how the history and the theory of literature of the target culture change translations, how different
interrelations unite them with the contexts of their creation and existence. Different literature theories, also those which exist simultaneously (not uncommonly mutually exclusive), have important influence on the translator’s strategy. It entails with the second aspect of proposed researches, which is the attempt to answer the fundamental questions concerning the shape of the interactive cultures.
The descriptive model of research was employed in the presented work.
This choice, opposed to the structural-linguistic researches, shuns making unambiguous evaluations concerning the quality of the translation. It is the result of denying utopian concept of equivalence and the category of the translation faithfulness, which previously determined indispensable element of translation’s evaluation.
The first chapter of the work discusses Vladimir Nabokov’s translation of A Hero of Our Times. Its essential analysis encompasses proper text of translation only to the insignificant degree. Here the most important translational phenomena became visible in the paratexts of translation, which indicates structuralist orientation. Obviously, it entails Nabokov’s theoretical premises towards translations, which in the critical literature are known as the doctrine of „literary translation”.
Anna Dergatcheva formulates the phenomenon of Nabokov’s translation in an interesting way. She indicates the relations of discussed translation with menippean satire, which in translatology is understood as the rule (not genre) modeling narrative texts as peculiar as translator’s introduction and footnotes.
In the last part of discussed chapter the ruminations of Tamara Brzostowska-Tereszkiewicz are presented. The researcher considers Nabokov’s activity as, so called, parnassian model of literary translation.
The second chapter titled Structuralist Translation proves that the awareness of the necessity to adapt translation to original text, expressed usually with the concept of equivalence, is common for both Polish and English translators of Lermontov’s novel. What is interesting, the feature of this types of strategy reveals
also translations made after the cultural turn (Marian Schwartz 2004 and Natasha Randall 2009).
The third chapter transfers accent from reflection on structuralist vision of translation into postcolonial aspect, visible in the latest English translation of A Hero… made by Nicolas Pasternak Slater with Andrew Kahn’s introduction.
Starting point for ruminations on postcolonial inclinations of Lermontov’s oeuvre (original text) and its translation is the presentation of the postcolonial researches in Russia as well as the characteristics of Russian imperialism. Both issues let throw new light on Slater’s translation.
The postcolonial aspect of English translation of Lermontov’s novel allows to present the phenomenon of translation as hermeneutical act, and the text of translation i.e. the latest English translation as the manifestation of translator’s exegetical attitude (chapter four). The final, fifth, chapter of the work, written on the basis of the analysis of Princess Mary’s Polish translations from 1844, 1848 (incomplete translation made
by Leszek Dunin-Borkowski) and 1890, discusses the way Polish traslatology awareness was modeled in 1822−1891. The peculiarity of Polish translatological idea was presented as well as the role of Adam Mickiewicz in its shaping. The last part of the chapter presents the descriptive analysis of Teodor Koën (1848), Czesław Mąkowski (1890) and Leszek Dunin-Borkowski’s translations.|