|Abstract: ||In the dissertation entitled “Communication determinants of organizational changes in Polish political parties at the turn of the century” the author has made a detailed analysis of the relationship between the political communication and the internal organization of Polish political parties. The dynamic technological development made a progress in manners and forms of communication. Making new perspectives and opportunities in making interactions, including through inventing and popularization of the Internet, have been reflected in the world of politics. Using the knowledge of Polish and foreign scientists it is important to emphasize that, on the one hand, a decrease of identification with political parties and, on the other hand, an increase of professionalization of political activities run by the management of political parties have occurred in the reality at the turn of the century. The main purpose of modern political parties is their organizational survival and development. The essence of the political activity is to establish interactions with voters in order to identify their opinions, adjust them to their own election program and shape their previous preferences. Combining together theses two conclusions, it should be noted that political communication allows constructing tools and methods by means of which political parties can be well managed, which ensures their survival and development.
The dissertation consists of fiver chapters. In the first chapter the author has analysed the functioning of the democratic system, in which all considerations collected in the dissertation have been embedded. The considerations have been, however, adapted to the overall context of the dissertation. In the second chapter the author has considered the issues concerning the evolutionary character of political parties. It is also important to emphasize that the considerations are focused only on political parties at the turn of the century. The third chapter discusses the issues presented in the second chapter, but in a detailed way. It contains the key management conceptions for political parties which according to the author are important to be implemented in parties whose main purpose is long-term survival and development. The fourth chapter includes the issues associated with the political communication. In the last chapter the author has collected the whole empirical knowledge gained during the interviews with the main politicians from Polish political parties. The interviews gain an insight into managerial processes in seven Polish parties:
1. Platforma Obywatelska RP;
2. Prawo i Sprawiedliwość;
3. Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe;
4. Ruch Kukiz’15;
5. Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej;
6. Twój Ruch;
7. Nowoczesna Ryszarda Petru.
The last chapter contains fifteen individual interviews. There were two criteria regarding the process of selecting the respondents. The first factor was their knowledge about managerial and communication processes in political parties they are associated with. The second fact was their experience gained during their political activity. The main purpose of these two criteria was to come to the representative conclusions for political parties as a whole organization, not only for their regional branches. Every interview had a detailed scenario which influenced on a scope and quantity of gathered information. The average interview lasted two and a half hours. During this time the author of the dissertation gained from ten to thirty one pages of the detailed information.
To achieve the dissertation’s purposes mentioned in previous paragraphs, the author has presented a series of hypotheses:
1. The most effective shaping of the development of countries and societies as well as skilful managing of public resources is achieved if political parties are well managed, in particular by conducting an effective human resources policy, which means the ability to recruit qualified supporters and members who are able to construct an election program ensuring long-term survival and development, skilful fundraising for statutory purposes and creating a strategy of development for a political party perceived as an organization which exists in the changing and rivalry environment;
2. Political parties whose main purpose is to perform public functions must construct an election program that is the most suited to the needs and expectations of potential voters. The election program needs also to be presented in the most preferred form for potential voters. The election program must be more convincing than the offers presented by other political parties;
3. In the political rivalry at the turn of the century political parties need to pick up the potential and skills indispensable in the process of shaping electoral preferences. The possibility of influencing on the decision making process in the country is associated with the proper selection of the communication tools and methods;
4. The good management of political parties is associated with an organizational structure which allows establishing interactions between politicians and voters, which makes it possible to create political programmes suited to the most preferred, from a political party’s point of view, segments of the electorate, influence on electoral attitudes as well as construct a political offer more persuasive for a voter than the counterpart created by political rivals;
5. The main purpose of every political party, perceived as gaining influence on the decision making process, can be achieved only by creation effective communication methods and tools, which are the most important in political parties and can also have an influence on political party’s organizational structure;
6. The level of the citizen’s knowledge in the countries which adopted a representative democratic system is directly proportional to the level of the social and economic development in these countries. The progress of the representative democratic system is possible in most cases due to creation of effective communication methods and tools;
7. The political evolution of modern societies, among which is should be mentioned, the decreasing level of the permanent identification with political parties determines an evolution of organizational structures of political parties and ways of creating political processes. Nowadays the political communication is a factor which allows interpreting electoral preferences and adjusting all political activities to them;
8. The evolution of the modern societies leads to the evolution of ways of creating political processes, especially by their assimilation to the activity based on methods and forms known from the commercial market.|