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Title: Temperamentalne i osobowościowe podłoże codziennego heroizmu
Authors: Atłas, Karina
Advisor: Pilch, Irena
Keywords: heroizm; ryzyko; impulsywność; narcyzm; deficyt lęku; osobowość; psychologia; psychopatia; temperament
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Katowice : Uniwersytet Śląski
Abstract: The work discusses the issue of heroism and its relations with personality, temperament, motivation behind heroic and risky behaviors, and attitude to heroism. The phenomenon of heroism lies in its characteristics: in heroism, a socially desirable behavior involves extremity, risk-taking and risking one's resources (health, life, money or reputation). Empirical study of heroism is a new area in psychology, probably because this phenomenon is not easy to describe and operationalize. Recently, there has been increasing interest in everyday heroism in psychological research. The study described in the dissertation involved the analysis of its correlations with HEXACO model dimensions as well as subclinical psychopathy, subclinical narcissism, and temperament (impulsivity, fear deficit, sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward, and the sensation seeking). Relationships between heroism and explicit and implicit motivation behind heroic behaviors, as well as between heroism and the person's attitude toward it, were also studied. In addition, correlations between the attitude toward heroism and some personality and motivational variables were analyzed. The hypotheses were verified in two study groups: a general population group (236 persons) and a group of people doing dangerous jobs (246 persons). Factor analysis of the instruments was carried out in a pilot group (200 persons) and an aggregate group (523 persons). In addition, 96 persons took part in the study of implicit motivation using the IRAP procedure. Heroism was measured with the Questionnaire of Heroic Behaviors [Kwestionariusz zachowań heroicznych] (the author's original instrument) and the Activity Frequency Inventory [Inwentarz częstości zachowań heroicznych] by Lilienfeld (adapted by the author). Motivation behind heroic behaviors was tested using the Questionnaire of Motives Behind Heroic Behaviors [Kwestionariusz motywacji do zachowań heroicznych] (the author's original instrument) and the IRAP procedure, and attitude to heroism, using the Questionnaire of Attitudes Toward Heroic Behaviors [Kwestionariusz postaw względem heroizmu] (the author's original instrument). The other variables were measured with research tools adapted to the Polish culture or translated into Polish by the author. The reported study shows that personality, temperamental and motivational factors play a role in heroism. It was possible to identify heroic prototypes connected with different levels of heroism and involving different traits: fearless heroes, narcissist and sensitive (openminded) heroes, impulsive (moderately heroic) individuals, and non-heroic ones. People working as fire fighters, police officers, rescuers or soldiers have a higher level of subclinical psychopathy and narcissism, and display a higher level of heroism. Mediational analysis, i.e., the analysis of mediator variables such as narcissism, may help understand the mechanism underlying heroic behaviors. As expected, heroism proved to be correlated with the dark side of personality. Probably heroism is an essentially pro-social behavior, but its determinants are complex and not related to a high level of honesty, authenticity or personality reflection of moral components. The study suggests that audacity, fearless temperament and narcissist selfsufficiency (understood as the belief in one's own efficacy, strength and ability to succeed) may be especially important in heroism. The study showed that even dark sides of personality may be socially beneficial. The study is concluded with the definition of heroism based on the theoretical concept and empirical study. The results may be used in different areas of psychological practice, such as professional training, recruitment and selection, psychological education and training, educational programmes, or the treatment of people with personality disorders.
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