The aim of this study was to assess the quality of consonant phonemes implementations in
children aged 3 to 9 with breathing and swallowing dysfunction.
In the first chapter theoretical bases of research have been presented including the
description of children’s development of articulation, methods and diagnostic tools used in speech
therapy, typology of speech defects as well as the overview of breathing and swallowing
In the methodological chapter the methodology of performed scientific analyses has been
discussed in details. Moreover, the author presents theoretical and practical objectives of her
research, main problems and research hypotheses along with the description of research
Research results of the quality of consonant phonemes in studied population have been
presented in the third chapter. Based on the results, the distribution of the frequency of individual
phonetic disorders in Polish language in terms of place and manner of articulation as well as the
role of vocal ligaments and nasal resonator has been determined.
In the fourth chapter the authors presents answers to the main and detailed research
problems that were raised formerly. The conclusions of the conducted research and analyses are
In the fifth chapter the paradigm of diagnosis and speech therapy for children with breathing
and swallowing dysfunction has been presented.