Martin Heidegger; filozofia; skończoność; ontologia
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
In this paper an attempt is made to weigh the problem of iiniteness in the fundamental
ontology of Martin Heidegger. On the one hand an analysis is made of one of the classical
metaphysical categories, while on the other hand it is endeavoured to find an answer to the
question of the function fulfilled by this category in the reasoning of Heidegger during the first,
and fundamental, period of his work. Two basic works from this period have been studied: Sein
und Zeit and Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik.
This paper is divided into two parts, the first being devoted to the central question in
Heidegger’s thinking on the essence of existence and to show as fully as possible the horizon in
which this question may arise (analysis of the structure of fundamental ontology, philosophical
research methods, the position of Heidegger’s philosophy among other philosophical streams),
providing in this way a broad and necessary introduction leading up to the more detailed problem
matter. The second part of the paper deals with elucidation of the role played by the category of
iiniteness in the construction of fundamental ontology, along with which are considerations on
Heidegger’s interpretation of I. Kant’s Critique o f pure reason. Bringing forward the role played by
the category of Iiniteness is associated with the necessity of seeking for replies to the following
— What is the essence of existence?
— What is the structure of man’s existence?
— What is Iiniteness in a man?
— Of what significance for the question of the possibility of founding metaphysics (for ontology)
is the fact that the question is posed by existence, which is a finite existence? The author inclines towards acceptance of the following theses ordering the structure of these
— Finiteness is the condition making possible thebuilding of fundamental ontology, as in the
philosophy of Kant it is the condition for the possibility of cognition of existence (ontological
— The linitencss of human existence in Heidegger as in Kant is based on the phenomenon
— The possibility of constructing the fundamental ontology of Heidegger and the metaphysics
of Kant (in the interpretation of Heidegger) is founded on the transitoriness of human
The development and juslilication of these proposed theses forms the principal content of the