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Title: Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism Sequencing (MSAP-Seq) - A Method for High-Throughput Analysis of Differentially Methylated CCGG Sites in Plants with Large Genomes
Authors: Chwiałkowska, Karolina
Korotko, Urszula
Kosińska, Joanna
Szarejko, Iwona
Kwaśniewski, Mirosław
Keywords: DNA methylation; MSAP; methylome analysis; new technique; next generation sequencing; large genomes
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 8 (2017), Art. No. 2056
Abstract: Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications and DNA methylation, mutually regulate chromatin structure, maintain genome integrity, and affect gene expression and transposon mobility. Variations in DNA methylation within plant populations, as well as methylation in response to internal and external factors, are of increasing interest, especially in the crop research field. Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) is one of the most commonly used methods for assessing DNA methylation changes in plants. This method involves gel-based visualization of PCR fragments from selectively amplified DNA that are cleaved using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. In this study, we developed and validated a new method based on the conventional MSAP approach called Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism Sequencing (MSAP-Seq). We improved the MSAP-based approach by replacing the conventional separation of amplicons on polyacrylamide gels with direct, high-throughput sequencing using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and automated data analysis. MSAP-Seq allows for global sequence-based identification of changes in DNA methylation. This technique was validated in Hordeum vulgare. However, MSAP-Seq can be straightforwardly implemented in different plant species, including crops with large, complex and highly repetitive genomes. The incorporation of high-throughput sequencing into MSAP-Seq enables parallel and direct analysis of DNA methylation in hundreds of thousands of sites across the genome. MSAP-Seq provides direct genomic localization of changes and enables quantitative evaluation. We have shown that the MSAP-Seqmethod specifically targets gene-containing regions and that a single analysis can cover three-quarters of all genes in large genomes.Moreover,MSAP-Seq’s simplicity, cost effectiveness, and high-multiplexing capability make this method highly affordable. Therefore, MSAP-Seq can be used for DNA methylation analysis in crop plants with large and complex genomes.
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.02056
ISSN: 1664-462X
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