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Title: Over-the-counter monocyclic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in environment-sources, risks, biodegradation
Authors: Marchlewicz, Ariel
Guzik, Urszula
Wojcieszyńska, Danuta
Keywords: Monocyclic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Toxicity; Biodegradation; Microorganisms
Issue Date: 2015
Citation: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol. 226, no. 10 (2015), art. no. 355
Abstract: Recently, the increased use of monocyclic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has resulted in their presence in the environment. This may have potential negative effects on living organisms. The biotransformation mechanisms of monocyclic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the human body and in other mammals occur by hydroxylation and conjugation with glycine or glucuronic acid. Biotransformation/biodegradation of monocyclic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment may be caused by fungal or bacterial microorganisms. Salicylic acid derivatives are degraded by catechol or gentisate as intermediates which are cleaved by dioxygenases. The key intermediate of the paracetamol degradation pathways is hydroquinone. Sometimes, after hydrolysis of this drug, 4- aminophenol is formed, which is a dead-end metabolite. Ibuprofen is metabolized by hydroxylation or activation with CoA, resulting in the formation of isobutylocatechol. The aim of this work is to attempt to summarize the knowledge about environmental risk connected with the presence of over-the-counter antiinflammatory drugs, their sources and the biotransformation and/or biodegradation pathways of these drugs.
DOI: 10.1007/s11270-015-2622-0
ISSN: 0049-6979
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