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Title: Epigenetic silicification of the Upper Oxfordian limestones in the Sokole Hills (Kraków-Częstochowa Upland) : relationship to facies development and tectonics
Authors: Matyszkiewicz, Jacek
Kochman, Alicja
Rzepa, Grzegorz
Gołębiowska, Bożena
Krajewski, Marcin
Gajdzik, Krzysztof
Żaba, Jerzy
Keywords: Upper Jurassic limestones; Epigenetic silicification; Tectonic deformations; Kraków-Częstochowa Upland
Issue Date: 2015
Citation: Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol. 65, no. 2 (2015), s. 181-203
Abstract: A spectacular epigenetic silicification was encountered in the Oxfordian bedded limestones exposed in the Sokole Hills situated in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. The main epigenetic mineral is microcrystalline quartz ac- companied by minor goethite, hematite, barite, galena and sphalerite. Locally, the mineralized limestones reveal Pb and Cu contents exceeding over 150 times the background values of these metals in unmineralized limestones. The epigenetic mineralization of the bedded limestones was probably a two-stage process. During the first, Early Cretaceous stage, silicified limestones formed at the erosional surface of a denuded carbonate complex. Such sili- cification greatly limited the progress of the first karstification phase of the Upper Jurassic carbonates initiated in the Hauterivian. The sources of silica accumulated in the limestones were descending solutions enriched in silica derived from the weathering zone. This silicification affected the topmost part of the Upper Jurassic massive lime- stones and the deeper portions of the bedded limestones along the fracture systems and stylolites. Early Cretaceous tectonic activity generated new dislocations and re-opened the existing faults, which were sub- sequently filled with permeable Albian quartz sands. These openings became the migration pathways for ascend- ing, warm, relict, sulphide-carrying hydrothermal solutions at the second formation stage of the epigenetic miner- alization. The newly supplied silica from the Albian sands precipitated on the silicified limestones and, as concentric rims, on brecciated, early diagenetic cherts. The second-stage mineralization proceeded under phreatic conditions, presumably close to a fluctuating mixing zone of ascending, warm hydrothermal solutions and descending cold groundwaters. The brecciated cherts acting as silica crystallization nuclei indicate that the last mineralization stage probably followed the final phase of Cenozoic faulting.
DOI: 10.1515/agp-2015-0007
ISSN: 1897-1695
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