filozofia polityki; idee polityczne; Stany Zjednoczone
Katowice : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
The work is devoted to the discussion of those distinguished figures of the
American political philosophy after 1945 whose thinking is strongly saturated with
the communitarian postulate. The following thinkers belong to this group:
1. Robert Nisbet — eminent conservative sociologist and philosopher. The main
motif of Nisbet’s thought is the necessity of resisting the omnipotence of the state
which has been increasing throughout the history of modem Europe. The author
presents the Nisbet’s typology of the most important kinds of communes and
discusses its details.
2. Michael Novak - liberal Catholic political philosopher. This philosopher puts
together liberal individualism and trust in capitalism with the Anglo-Saxon culture
of social coexistence and the Catholic communitarianism, metaphysics, and ethics.
3. Alasdair MacIntyre - an ethicist. Aiming at an explanation of the chaos
in the contemporary moral culture MacIntyre reaches back to Antiquity and the
Middle Ages. He constructs a model of ethics consisting in the dialectical co-
-operation of the ethics of virtues and the ethics the law. The ethics of virtues is
connected with the communitarian character of human existence and the demands
of efficacy. The ethics of the law has a strong universal coloring and individualizing
bearing. The author undertakes an evaluation of the style of the intellectual
output of the American ethicist.
4. Michael Sandel. This figure opens a group of philosophers using the watchword
of communitarianism beginning from the end of the 1970s. The common
denominator of this group is, in addition to the watchword of community, their leftist
position. The main ideas of Sandel’s philosophy are: situated „1”, superiority of
the notions of good and evil (empirically and communally rooted) over the notions
of the law and legitimacy (notions of universal character discovered by individual
reason), pluralist dispersion of power. The author undertook the criticism of Sanders
intellectual skills and of the exaggeratedly leftist elements of his writings.
5. Michael Walzer - liberalist, socialist and communitarianist. The author discusses
and critically comments the principal for Walzer’s thought tendency to
egalitarianism. 6. Charles Taylor - Canadian philosopher. This thinker perceives individualism
as „narrowing of life horizons”, links individualism with the limitations of ethical
relativism, wants to construct social life on the democratic principle of „direct
participation”. The author has criticized the leftist moral oversensitivity and the
lack of the internal dynamics of the leftist ideals which characterize Taylor.
7. Amitai Etzioni - American sociologist, co-creator of the organizational
foundations of the intellectual communitarian movement. This philosopher looks
for a balance between the values of order and autonomy.
The work of the philosopher mentioned above is discussed from the authors
own theoretical basis which he expressed by means of the notions of: „heroic empiricism”,
„dialectical nature of reality”, „vitalism” and „perfectionism”. The author
deeply identifies himself with the conservative optics and its perception of communalism.
In order to overcome some deficiencies of the conservative position he
postulates a dynamic conservatism.