Studies *on the contemporary society transformation (including the transformation of the class structure) stipulate that the implications of the social differentation inherent to this structure must be taken into consideration. Investigation performed by culture sociologists showed that the cultural differentiation of a society must not correspond to its social differentiation many times it constitutes an autonomous system of classes discriminated with specific cultural criteria. The study presents an analysis of the interrelation
between a social structure and cultural differentiation of a society, noticeable, in particular, in the models of the participation in culture. The author’s reflections are contained within the frames of the theoretical conception stipulating treatment of the sociology of culture as a sociological subdiscipline which deals with
some phenomena of a symbolic culture. Chapter one analyzes social conditions governing the participation and it presents some reflections on how the complex approach to the matter should be done. Next chapters discuss the results of the investigation on the participation in culture of the selected groups of workers and intellectuals.
Chapter four proposes some synthetic indicators relevant to the participation in culture. The last chapter treats of the problems involved into the commonly used definition of culture, and makes an attempt at the dynamic interpretation of the correlation between the social differentiation of a society and its cultural differentiation
it describes also how cultural gaps noticeable in the Polish society are perceived.