|Abstract: ||rapid, unprecedential development of the Black Continent cities
has brought some crucial repercussions - political, economical, and
social. From the point of view of sociology the examination of the
interrelation between urban!zational and evolutive processes, taking
place in the large social structures, acquires a particular
attention. The development gives rise to some qualitatively new macrostructures,
like classes and strata of a society. The present study
is devoted to their Identification and to the transformations that
take place in the Black Africa cities.
The correctness of the author’s considerations was conditioned, on
the one hand, by the choice of the most adequate conception of urbanization
and, on the other hand, by the application of such theory
of social classes and strata, which when referring to the conditions
prevailing in Africa, would provide the most thorough explication of
their origin and development. The introductory part of the study proposes
a conception of the conditioned development, as a correct one
and leading to some interesting issues.
Hence, the basic notional categories apllied in the study are: "a
situation of the conditioning" and "development conditioned". These categories represent not only quantitative and factual aspects of
the evolution, out also its qualitative and genetic attributes; they
extend the field of an analysis, that has covered the African countries,
as well as some developed countries, with which the Africans
entered into disadvantageous economical and political relations.
In the African conditions the two basic trends determining the
class-strata dynamics were exposed. On the one hand, the oligarchization
process takes place, on the other hand
- the marginalization. The. first one means that all
types and forms of an authority are intercepted by small groups, intending
to consolidate their own privileged in every respect position.
frhrginalization means that the.large masses of people are kept
to be pushed down to the extra-formal economical circulation disposed
to operate in the impecunious groups. Moreover, this process
brings about the minimum participation of this category of people in
the political, economical and cultural life of the 31ack Africa countries.
Marginalization and oligarchization give rise to the formation of
small, relatively integrated groups (elites) connected with
the superior economical circulation; and on the other hand - of numerous
groups of proletariate (the proletarianized
classe s). Biese groups are discriminated not only by their
political position and economical status, but also by their attitudes
toward the African still-lasting dependence on the dominions
which are different. This attitude finds its repercussion either in
the interception of a part of wealth transferred to the African countries
or it becomes one of the causes for the underprivileged groups
Apart from the elite and the proletarianized groups in the African
towns emerge the middle strata and categories.
They cover both the intelligentsia and the industrial proletariate, born as a result of the wide-spread, education of all levels,
and of the-emerging enclaves of industry.
The elites do not form as yet classes in the Marxist or the stratificational
interpretation of the notion, still political and economical
power monopolized by them, as well as their potentiality to
acquire education make that in the African communities they are those
groups that display aptness to evolve.
The proletarian!zed strat^ as well as the elite do not possess all
attributes of a social class. Though the former one are in every respect
underprivileged as far as the share in national profits is concerned,
they are not aware, as a community, of the state of this
deprivation. One may suppose that with the progress of industrialization,
urbanization and wide-spread education the prolerarianized
strata, likewise the elite, adopt the structural attributes of a social
class. The class-forming processes, once started, still proceed
and are irreversible.|