Karol Darwin; gatunek; konwencja; parodia; pastisz
"Teksty Drugie" nr 3 (2011), s. 52-63
Charles Darwin understood species as a historical phenomenon subject to continuous change. Accroding to the naturalist, small changes are continuously effected within species, and these changes are in turn subject to natural selection or selective breeding. Therefore, the author suggests, Darwin's description of 'eminent breeders' - who are capable of educing the idea of a new variety or breed of very slight recognized differences - corresponds with the type of literary (or artistic) criticism that assesses artistic achievement on the basis of emergent possibilities. This kind of criticism strives to secure a place for phenomena and trends that are not yet fully recognized.
The author focuses primarily on pastiche, considered as a change-inducing factor. Pastiche - conceived as a "small difference" or "minimal innovation" within the aesthetic system - requires a reading aimed at finding the differences between the imitating text and the summoned outdated model ("differences absolutely inappreciable by an uneducated eye" - wrote Darwin).