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Title: Current Perspectives on the Auxin-Mediated Genetic Network that Controls the Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis in Plants
Authors: Wójcik, Anna M.
Wójcikowska, Barbara
Gaj, Małgorzata D.
Keywords: auxin; Aux/IAA; auxin signalling; ARFs; LAFL group genes; somatic embryogenesis; transcription factors
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 21 (2020), Art. No. 1333
Abstract: Auxin contributes to almost every aspect of plant development and metabolism as well as the transport and signalling of auxin-shaped plant growth and morphogenesis in response to endo- and exogenous signals including stress conditions. Consistently with the common belief that auxin is a central trigger of developmental changes in plants, the auxin treatment of explants was reported to be an indispensable inducer of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in a large number of plant species. Treating in vitro-cultured tissue with auxins (primarily 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which is a synthetic auxin-like plant growth regulator) results in the extensive reprogramming of the somatic cell transcriptome, which involves the modulation of numerous SE-associated transcription factor genes (TFs). A number of SE-modulated TFs that control auxin metabolism and signalling have been identified, and conversely, the regulators of the auxin-signalling pathway seem to control the SE-involved TFs. In turn, the di erent expression of the genes encoding the core components of the auxin-signalling pathway, the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACIDs (Aux/IAAs) and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), was demonstrated to accompany SE induction. Thus, the extensive crosstalk between the hormones, in particular, auxin and the TFs, was revealed to play a central role in the SE-regulatory network. Accordingly, LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1 and LEC2), BABY BOOM (BBM), AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) and WUSCHEL (WUS) were found to constitute the central part of the complex regulatory network that directs the somatic plant cell towards embryogenic development in response to auxin. The revealing picture shows a high degree of complexity of the regulatory relationships between the TFs of the SE-regulatory network, which involve direct and indirect interactions and regulatory feedback loops. This review examines the recent advances in studies on the auxin-controlled genetic network, which is involved in the mechanism of SE induction and focuses on the complex regulatory relationships between the down- and up-stream targets of the SE-regulatory TFs. In particular, the outcomes from investigations on Arabidopsis, which became a model plant in research on genetic control of SE, are presented.
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21041333
ISSN: 1661-6596
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