Unia Europejska; kryzys gospodarczy; integracja w Unii Europejskiej
Studia Europejskie - Studies in European Affairs, (2012), nr 3, s. 71-92
One of the major problems associated with the process of European integration is the issue of diversification of integration between the EU Member States. Initially, before the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty, differencesin integration between the members of the EC (EU) were relatively few and they were usually temporary in nature. The Schengen Agreement, the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Amsterdam, and the possibility of establishingenhanced co-operation meant that the problem was becoming more and more important in the functioning of the EU - both theoretically and in the practice.The main thesis of the article is that the economic and financial crisis, which has lasted in the EU for several years has strongly contributed to the deepening of disparities between the EU Member States. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of this crisis and the decisions made and actions taken in the context of the issue of diversity in the EU. Firstly, the paper deals with the legal basis of enhanced co-operation in the EU and examples of diversity in integration before 2010, and it presents two cases of establishing enhanced co-operation in the EU. Later, the article shows the actions and decisions taken by the EU Member States and the EU institutions in the context of the economic and debt crisis (such as the so-called ‘six pack’, the ‘fiscal pact’,and others). The summary contains the main conclusions.