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Title: Reconstructing the evolution of "Brachypodium" genomes using comparative chromosome painting
Authors: Betekhtin, Alexander
Jenkins, Glyn
Hasterok, Robert
Keywords: Brachypodium; Biological evolution; Chromosome Painting; Plant genetics
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: PLoS ONE, (2014), no. 12, art. no. 115108
Abstract: Brachypodium distachyon is a model for the temperate cereals and grasses and has a biology, genomics infrastructure and cytogenetic platform fit for purpose. It is a member of a genus with fewer than 20 species, which have different genome sizes, basic chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. The phylogeny and interspecific relationships of this group have not to date been resolved by sequence comparisons and karyotypical studies. The aims of this study are not only to reconstruct the evolution of Brachypodium karyotypes to resolve the phylogeny, but also to highlight the mechanisms that shape the evolution of grass genomes. This was achieved through the use of comparative chromosome painting (CCP) which hybridises fluorescent, chromosome-specific probes derived from B. distachyon to homoeologous meiotic chromosomes of its close relatives. The study included five diploids (B. distachyon 2n=10, B. sylvaticum 2n=18, B. pinnatum 2n=16; 2n=18, B. arbuscula 2n=18 and B. stacei 2n=20) three allotetraploids (B. pinnatum 2n=28, B. phoenicoides 2n=28 and B. hybridum 2n=30), and two species of unknown ploidy (B. retusum 2n=38 and B. mexicanum 2n=40). On the basis of the patterns of hybridisation and incorporating published data, we propose two alternative, but similar, models of karyotype evolution in the genus Brachypodium. According to the first model, the extant genome of B. distachyon derives from B. mexicanum or B. stacei by several rounds of descending dysploidy, and the other diploids evolve from B. distachyon via ascending dysploidy. The allotetraploids arise by interspecific hybridisation and chromosome doubling between B. distachyon and other diploids. The second model differs from the first insofar as it incorporates an intermediate 2n =18 species between the B. mexicanum or B. stacei progenitors and the dysploidic B. distachyon.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115108
ISSN: 1932-6203
Appears in Collections:Artykuły (WNP)

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