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Title: Cryoconite – from minerals and organic matter to bioengineeredsediments on glacier's surfaces
Authors: Rozwalak, Piotr
Podkowa, Paweł
Buda, Jakub
Niedzielski, Przemysław
Kawecki, Szymon
Ambrosini, Roberto
Azzoni, Roberto S.
Baccolo, Giovanni
Ceballos, Jorge L.
Cook, Joseph
Di Mauro, Biagio
Ficetola, Gentile Francesco
Franzetti, Andrea
Ignatiuk, Dariusz
Klimaszyk, Piotr
Łokas, Edyta
Ono, Masato
Parnikoza, Ivan
Pietryka, Mirosława
Pittino, Francesca
Poniecka, Ewa
Porazinska, Dorota L.
Richter, Dorota
Schmidt, Steven K.
Sommers, Pacifica
Souza-Kasprzyk, Juliana
Stibal Marek, Marek
Szczuciński, Witold
Uetake, Jun
Wejnerowski, Łukasz
Yde, Jacob C.
Takeuchi, Nozomu
Zawierucha, Krzysztof
Keywords: biogenic aggregates; biotic consortia; cryoconite holes; cyanobacteria; ecosystem engineers; supraglacial ecosystems
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "Science of the Total Environment", Vol. 807, pt. 2, 2022, art. no. 150874, s. 1-16
Abstract: Cryoconite is a mixture of mineral and organic material covering glacial ice, playing important roles in biogeochemical cycles and lowering the albedo of a glacier surface. Understanding the differences in structure of cryoconite across the globe can be important in recognizing past and future changes in supraglacial environments and ice-organisms-minerals interactions. Despite the worldwide distribution and over a century of studies, the basic characteristics of cryoconite, including its forms and geochemistry, remain poorly studied. The major purpose of our study is the presentation and description of morphological diversity, chemical and photoautotrophs composition, and organic matter content of cryoconite sampled from 33 polar and mountain glaciers around the globe. Observations revealed that cryoconite is represented by various morphologies including loose and granular forms. Granular cryoconite includes smooth, rounded, or irregularly shaped forms; with some having their surfaces covered by cyanobacteria filaments. The occurrence of granules increased with the organic matter content in cryoconite.Moreover, amajor driver of cryoconite colouringwas the concentration of organicmatter and its interplay with minerals. The structure of cyanobacteria and algae communities in cryoconite differs between glaciers, but representatives of cyanobacteria families Pseudanabaenaceae and Phormidiaceae, and algae families Mesotaeniaceae and Ulotrichaceaewere themost common. Themost of detected cyanobacterial taxa are known to produce polymeric substances (EPS) that may cement granules. Organic matter content in cryoconite varied between glaciers, ranging from 1% to 38%. The geochemistry of all the investigated samples reflected local sediment sources, except of highly concentrated Pb andHg in cryoconite collected fromEuropean glaciers near industrialized regions, corroborating cryoconite as element-specific collector and potential environmental indicator of anthropogenic activity. Our work supports a notion that cryoconite may bemore than just simple sediment and instead exhibits complex structure with relevance for biodiversity and the functioning of glacial ecosystems
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150874
ISSN: 0048-9697
Appears in Collections:Artykuły (WNP)

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