|Title:||Uwagi o kulturze mikockiej na Górnym Śląsku : przyczynek do genezy kultury mikockiej w Europie Środkowej|
Foltyn, Edelgarda M.
Kozłowski, Janusz K.
|Keywords:||Micoquian Culture; Pietrowice Wielkie site 23; Mikock culture in Upper Silesia|
|Citation:||Archeologia Polski, 2001, z.1/2, s. 31-66|
|Abstract:||Two sites of the Micoquian Culture are known in the literature from Upper Silesia: Pietrowice Wielkie site 23 (excavations from the period between the two World Wars; see for example J.K. Ko-złowski 1964a, s. 79, 161) and Dzierżysław site 1 (excavations of 1962-1992; see E.M. Fołtyn, E. Fołtyn, J.K. Kozłowski 2000). Recently it has been possible to gain access to four other sites of this culture which were also discovered in the Inter-War period: Cyprzanów site 3, Maków site 15, Pietrowice Wielkie site 8, Pietrowice Wielkie site 76 (see M. Fajer, E.M. Fołtyn, E. Fołtyn, J.K. Ko-złowski, in print). Apart from these, a relatively rich collection of finds was collected in 1993-1997 on site 49 in Pietraszyn (see M. Fajer, E.M. Fołtyn, E. Fołtyn, J.K. Kozłowski, in print). All these sites occur on the Głubczyce Plateau and form a sort of concentration in the catchment areas of the Psina and Troja rivers (Fig. 1). Site 49 at Pietraszyn which has produced the largest number of finds (72 items) is probably a workshop where bifacial tools were produced. Here several varieties of Upper Silesian erratic flint were used (Table 8). The inventory exhibits a twofold dominance of tools (46 items) over flakes (24 examples). The tools were made (see Table 1) of nodules (of slab form), waste and pieces (52.17%) and flakes (47.83%). Bifacial tools with surface retouch dominate over unifacial ones. The working techniques were bifacial and trifacial. The sections of the tools are flat-convex and double flat-convex (Table 2). Attention is drawn by the occurrence of 14 side-scrapers, 8 asymmetric knives, 3 hand-axes (Figs 2b, 4a, 3) — among them of Micoquian type and Faustkeilblatt, one hand-axe/knife (Fig. 5a) and 11 retouched flakes (Figs 2a, 13d, 18c). Among the side-scrapers, bifacial forms predominate (Figs 5b, 14a, b, 10a, 15a, b, 16, 17a) over unifacial ones (Figs lib, 12a, b, 13a, b, c). Among the asymmetric knives are three Prondnik-knives (Figs 4b, 6a, b), one Bockstein type knife (Fig. 7b) and other types (Figs 7a, c, 8a, b). These tools are supplemented by one denticulated notched piece, two atypical perforators (Fig. 18b), one burin-core (Fig. 18a), one flake-like blade with retouch on the tip (Fig. 17b), three half-finished of knife/side-scrapers (Figs 10b, 9a, b) and one half-finished leaf point (Fig. 11a). The flakes come mainly from bifacial working. They are charac-terized by differentiation of the dorsal surface (Table 3-4). Their butts are most often unprepared (Table 5), bulbs are detached, thinned or flat (Table 6) and the angle of striking is obtuse (Table 7). The assemblage also contains two unclassified half-products. They exhibit traces of the start of the use of Levalloisian (Fig. 2a) and discoidal core technique. From the technological-morphological point of view the material from Pietraszyn site 49 exhi-bits certain similarities with artefacts from Mesvin IV (M. Cahen, J. Michel 1986). The similarities concern the occurrence of analogous hand-axes and asymmetric knives and the knowledge of Leval-loisian techniques. They also have similar chronology. The remaining sites have produced small assemblages with rather eastern European affinities. From Cyprzanów site 3 come two Prondnik-knives (Fig. 20a, c) and one half-product of a bifacial tool (Fig. 20b) and a bilateral side-scraper. In the assemblage from Pietrowice Wielkie site 8 a knife resembling the form of a Wolgograd type (Fig. 19a) was found, as was a convex convergent side-scraper. The inventory is completed by an atypical knife with alternately retouched back from Maków site 15 and a trifacially-worked ovoid knife from Pietrowice Wielkie site 76 (Fig. 19b). On the basis of the materials discovered so far, one may define two chronological horizons in the development of the Micoquian Culture in Upper Silesia. The inventories of Dzierżysław site 1 layer 6 and Pietraszyn site 49 belong to the older horizon (Warta stage or the end of the Lublin stage). The chronological position of the finds from Dzierżysław site 1 is determined by their stratigraphic position (Older Loess lib according to J. Jersak 1991) as well as TL dates of the deposits in which they lay (E.M. Fołtyn, E. Fołtyn, J.K. Kozłowski 2000). The assignation of Pietraszyn site 49 to the earlier horizon is also determined by the geological context of the finds: in the upper layers of alluvia of the Warta stage terrace (Fig. 21a, b). The material from Cyprzanów site 3 can also be assigned to the pre-Eemian period. By contrast the assemblages from Pietrowice Wielkie sites 8,23,76 and Maków site 15 can most probably be linked with the later horizon of development of the Micoquian Culture (the Eemian stage — the lower level of the middle Vistula substage). This would be indicated by the state or preserva-tion of the artefacts, and the local stratigraphic situation at the place of discovery. The inventories from the archaeological sites at Dzierżysław site 1, Pietraszyn site 49 and Cy-przanów site 3 (?) seem to confirm the existence in central Europe of eastern Micoquian industries earlier than the Eemian stage. The theory of the western origin of the eastern Micoquian Culture (see for example F. Delpech, J.-M. Geneste, J.-Ph. Rigaud, J.-P. Texier 1995, s. 155) would seem to require re-examination.|
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