Polityka Arystotelesa; Teoria państwa; Teoria społeczeństwa
Civitas Mentis, T. 1 (2005), s. 17-41
The article presents a human, and specifically a citizen, in various political systems of ancient Greece: in monarchy, tyranny, politeia, the best state and in democracy. It also shows the function of demagogoues in democracy and the special place for outstanding citizens. By presenting the relationship between a state and its citizen the author characterizes the role of a citizen in a Greek polis in the light of Aristotle’s Politics. A citizen of the Greek state fulfills his ambitions when he undertakes action in three domains of the social and political life: in military service, in the state administration and in religious service. According to the philosopher each of those functions can be undertaken by the same citizens, but in accordance witn their age. In youth they are to be warriors, later on oflicers, and towards the end of their lives they can be priests. All of those tasks
were obviously differentiated in the historical poleis and they had special forms in each of them.