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dc.contributor.authorFojcik, Barbara-
dc.description.abstractThe Cracow-Częstochowa Upland is the macroregion of the Silesian-Cracow Upland. It extends from the town of Częstochowa to Cracow and covers approximately 2 615 km2 (Kondracki 1988). The contemporary landscape of the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland is composed of udulating areas, becoming even at an altitude of 350—450 m a.s.l., and punctuated by rising calcareous monadnocks. The plant cover of the Upland is very diverse. Calcareous grasslands and rocky communities are, among others, its particularly valuable elements. These studies were undertaken and focused mainly on: — presentation of the species richness and variety of moss flora in the area of the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland, — definition of the main factors shaping the contemporary bryoflora and the distribution of particular species, — review of trends observed in the dynamics of the analysed flora and an attempt made to determine the causes, — analysis of reactions to anthropopressure regarding particular species and various ecological groups of mosses and the consequent local changes in ranges and distribution patterns of particular species. The moss flora of the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland comprises 357 species (plus 12 varieties), which make up 51% of the entire country’s bryoflora (Ochyra et al. 2003; Stebel 2006). These belong to 45 families, among which Pottiaceae (48 species), Brachytheciaceae (34), Bryaceae (32) and Amblystegiaceae (29) are most numerously represented (Table 1). The temperate element, from among the 9 geographic groups distinguished (Table 4) had the highest share (29.4%). Up to 40 species reach the limit of their range within the area (Table 5). It is the northern limit for 29 montane taxa (72.5%) which are usually absent from the lowland. In the Cracow-Częstochowa moss flora the total proportion of montane species is significant, amounting to 29% (104 taxa) (Table 6). Ecological indexes were used in the analysis of species preferences regarding habitats. Almost half the mosses in the area were light-demanding species with an L index value from 7 to 9 (Fig. 19). More than 40% of the mosses recorded were strongly calciphilous with an R index from 7 to 9 (Table 7). In the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland species with medium moisture demands prevailed (F). These made up almost 60% of the local bryoflora. The general bryofloristic characteristics of the main habitat types are presented in this paper. The hydrographic conditions in the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland do not favour aquatic mosses. Peat-bog or marshy communities also do not cover large areas. Instead the bryoflora associated with xerothermic grassland, which has developed on deforested and regularly pastured calcareous habitats is rich and interesting. Ninety-seven moss species were noted here (27% of the flora), while 157 moss species occurred (44% of the flora) in terrestrial forest habitats (mainly in pine and mixed forest, in beech forest and oak-hornbeam-lime forest), as well as in brushwood. Rocky habitats are typical of the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland; 184 species (51.8%) were noted there, including 21 from the only non-calcareous habitats (boulders). Tree bark supported 116 species with the highest numbers of epiphytic taxa being recorded on the following common trees: ash (64), maple (58), beech (54), willow (52), alder (48) and poplar (43) (Table 8, Fig. 21). Moreover, 91 species (25.5% of the flora) were noted on decaying wood. From among the anthropogenic habitats the richest bryoflora occurred along cart tracks and roadsides where 118 species (33% of the flora) were noted at least once. While 71 species occurred (almost 20% of the flora) on agricultural fields (both copped and fallow); the most frequent were small, orthotropic therophytes. A similar group of species also colonized escarpments; 77 species were noted there (21.5% of the bryoflora). Artificial rock like habitats were among those which significantly influenced the composition of the local bryoflora. From among 184 taxa associated with rocks up to 69 (37.5%) were observed on concrete at least once. 157 (44%) from among the 357 moss species recorded in the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland were observed in anthropogenic habitats at least once. The main forms of anthropopressure and their influence on habitats, plant communities and the moss flora are also described in the paper. Deforestation and damage to the structure of forest phytocoenoses, as well as the decline of water, peat-bog and marsh vegetation are the most visible and negative effects of deforestation management. This has resulted in the decline of a high number of rare taxa which are sensitive to habitat change, epiphytes among them. Many have disappeared from the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland, as well as from other regions of Poland and Europe, as a consequence of air pollution, deforestation and the modification of tree stands (lack of ancient forest and habitats for forest shade- and moisture-demanding species). The abandonment of certain forms of agricultural management has also had negative consequences for the vegetation. One spectacular example is the large-scale degeneration of grassland communities caused by the cessation of grazing on them. This has caused the decline of many interesting, rare species of xerothermic plant. The dynamic tendencies observed in the moss flora in the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland are discussed. Negative phenomena prevail because of the disappearance of species. The diminution in the native bryoflora is not offset by the appearance of many alien species as is the case with vascular plants. Pioneers of initial habitats prevail among the moss species which are increasing. Two alien species — Campylopus introflexus (Fig. 38) and Orthodontium lineare (Fig. 39) have been noted in single locations. Factors influencing the dynamic tendencies, especially anthropopressure, are also discussed. The most radical manifestation of anthropopressure is the deforestation of vast areas in order to convert them to non-forestry use. Habitat changes cause the regression of certain species while providing others the chance to expand their local range as a way of ecological expansion (e.g. acidophilous epiphytes such as Dicranoweisia cirrata, Orthodicranum montanum and O. tauricum). Almost all of the partly protected mosses in Poland (25 out of 27 — 92.6%), as well as 71 (41%) of strictly protected species occur in the Upland (Table 13). From among the 231 threatened mosses in Poland, 65 were noted there; with 40% in the R (rare) (Fig. 53). The concentration of records for strictly protected and threatened species in the whole of Poland is shown in Fig. 54. Changes in the plant cover mean that the problem of moss protection in the Cracow- Częstochowa Upland has become extremely important. As these studies have confirmed, reserve protection is the only effective method of maintaining interesting elements of the flora (including the bryoflora) and their habitats. Attention should also be paid to activities which focus on preserving the diversity of species outside protected areas. Primarily certain restrictions on forest management should be considered, as well as the need for actively protecting grassland vegetation.pl_PL
dc.publisherWydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiegopl_PL
dc.rightsUznanie autorstwa-Użycie niekomercyjne-Bez utworów zależnych 3.0 Polska*
dc.subjectCracow-Częstochowa Uplandpl_PL
dc.titleMchy Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej w obliczu antropogenicznych przemian szaty roślinnejpl_PL
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