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Title: Metody geoelektryczne w badaniach gruntów skażonych substancjami ropopochodnymi
Authors: Żogała, Bogdan
Keywords: geofizyka; gleby; zanieczyszczenie gleb; geoelektryka
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
Abstract: Particular hazards to the environment are caused by hydrocarbon products introduced as a result of industrial and military activity. It leads to contamination of shallow sub-surface layers, as well as groundwater. The presence of hydrocarbon pollutants in the geological environment causes changes in its many physical properties (e.g. electrical conductivity and resistivity). This results in the anomalies observed. However, hydrocarbons, despite being excellent insulators, can generate both anomalies of low conductivity (i.e high resistivity), high conductivity, or do not cause any changes in values of the parameter measured. Changes in its values in short time intervals can be irregular and fall into the measurement error range. Simultaneously, these values can gradually decrease over the time, which is associated with the loss of contamination weight and gradual remediation of the environment due to natural biological processes. The monograph presents the possibility of applying geoelectrical methods — conductometric in frequency domain and resistivity imaging — to identify petroleum contaminations and to monitor the process of their bioremediation by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. The applied research methodology allowed also to trace models of contamination evolution. The results of field measurements were interpreted by the inversion method of resistivity imaging, 1D with the conductometric one, and 2D taking the topography into account. In the final interpretation, the laboratory tests (determination of hydrocarbons and metals contents, determination of mineral composition, indication of electrical resistivity as a function of humidity, indication of electrical conductivity as a function of the concentration of citric acid) are included. The study was carried out in two areas of former military fuel bases JAR in the Borne Sulinowo and Szprotawa sites, differing in geological structure and vegetation. Both centers are sandy, the first one shows high resistivity whereas the second one — low resistivity. The complex field and laboratory studies were performed under conditions of high-resistivity environment. First of all, the possibility to use both methods for the identification of perennial petroleum contamination was recognizedwith an assessment of their quality by the correlation with historical data and results of laboratory research. Next, the methods were applied to identify the fresh contamination and to control their dispersion in geological complex, together with laboratory tests and the atmogeochemical method. In the following research, the process of supported bioremediation was monitored at two contamination sites: the historical and fresh controlled ones. The influence of atmospheric conditions on values of the parameters measured was estimated, as well as their changes in time. Using laboratory and atmogeochemical research, bioremediation rate has been assessed, whereas basing on resistivity cross-sections, the percentage loss of the contaminants has been calculated. Under conditions of the low-resistivity environment such as the area of former JAR fuel storage in Szprotawa, the research was carried out to the limited extend, along only one profile running from the contaminated site to the clean one. It enabled to trace evolution of contamination from: clean environment contamination high-resitivity model low-resitivity clean environment Application of geoelectrical methods enabled to investigate qualitatively petroleum contamination sites. It also enabled to estimate their spatial distribution, whereas parameters measured in situ correlated well with the results of laboratory tests. It has been shown that, depend on the occurrence of organic acids or their absence in the geological environment, the contaminated sites can generate anomalies of low conductivity or high conductivity. The presence of organic acids depends on the geological structure and hydrogeological and environmental conditions. In the high-resistivity environment natural bioremediation is hindered and occurs slowly. Thus production of organic acids is limited. In the low-resistivity environment microorganisms populations are various and numerous, thus natural bioremediation occurs rapidly. As a result, a low-resistivity model of con-tamination is generated over the contaminated site just after its contamination. It has been shown that immediately after contamination of the sandy environment, there is a distinctive increase inelectrical resistivity, which is related to high resistivity of hydrocarbons. Moreover, the progression of bioremediation with Yarrowia lipolytica yeast can be effectively and continuously monitored by modern geoelectrical methods.
ISBN: 9788322621929
Appears in Collections:Książki/rozdziały (WNP)

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