Social exclusion is considered to be one of the most difficult social problems, constituting
serious threat for human psychological and physical health. Within the area of psychological
studies, social exclusion is treated as the effect of deprivation of one of the most
fundamental human needs, namely the sense of belonging.
The main aim of the book is to present conditions in which the youth deal with various
situations threatened with social exclusion.
The first part shows a socio‑psychological
context of threats the youth face these days,
including conditions resulting from environmental, family, school and individual problems.
The phenomenon of school shooting was elaborated on. Particular increase in their number
was observed last decade. The third chapter was fully devoted to the issue of the need and
sense of belonging. Next, the consequences of the threat with social exclusion, including
psychological and psycho‑physiological
ones were presented.
Chapter five referred to various theoretical conceptions of dealing with stress, among
others a transactional perspective of dealing with stress and conceptions of resource
In the second part of the book the results of the author’s studies were presented. The
area of researched psychological variables; threat with social exclusion, the need and the
sense of belonging, anger, emotional intelligence, self‑esteem
and mood, as well as dealing
with stress was illustrated. The last two chapters were devoted to a description of the course
of the studies and the analysis of the findings gathered. Research doubts that accompanied
the structure of the research tool and the choice of the means of results analysis were presented.
A discussion, being an attempt at interpreting the results, was made.
The analysis of the very determinants showed that the youth noticing threat with social
exclusion do not satisfy the sense of belonging sufficiently. Young people who do not
feel important and appreciated perceive their resources much worse, which influences their
functioning and ways of dealing with difficulties. Decrease in self‑esteem
mood, as well as the decrease in comprehension ability and emotion control are observed in
the case of the lowered sense of belonging. Unfulfilled sense of belonging is connected with
increased anger expressed outside.
The conclusion of the book presents a proposal for investigating the effects of psychological
interventions concerning a social “inclusion” of the youth on the example of the next
phase of experimental studies being currently conducted.