strukturalizm; fenomenologia; antropologia refleksyjna; reifikacja; Ferdinand de Saussure; Edmund Husserl; Pierre Bourdieu; langue; parole
Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza
A. Grzegorczyk, A. Kaczmarek, K. Machtyl (red.), "Kurs na Ferdinanda de Saussure'a" (S. 263-275). Poznań : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza
The aim of the paper is to consider, by means of phenomenological analysis of object-constitution, the way Ferdinand de Saussure makes language the object of his examinations. Drawing on phenomenological method, on Pierre Bourdieu (Le sens pratique) and also on other attempts (Bronisław Malinowski et al.), the author offers a critique of the Saussurean concept of language. The very proposition of the paper is the claim that de Saussure forgets the language as energeia (as force acting in the human mind), seeing it in some aspects as an autonomous ergon (an object), to speak in terms of Wilhelm von Humboldt. De Saussure takes no account of the embeddedness of language in human action, in speech acts, where the same utterance can be guided by various intentions and can aspire to different aims. Following the proposals of Ferdinand de Saussure, the author of the paper raise the question of how language changes. He focuses on the dynamic, mutual (dialectical) relations between the layers of la langue and parole. Such relations can be regarded as the basis of discourse changes, i.e. the changes in the ways a human being speaks about reality, as well as perceives and handles it.