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Title: 5-Azacitidine induces cell death in a tissue culture of Brachypodium distachyon
Authors: Betekhtin, Alexander
Milewska-Hendel, Anna
Chajec, Łukasz
Rojek, Magdalena
Nowak, Katarzyna
Kwaśniewska, Jolanta
Wolny, Elżbieta
Kurczyńska, Ewa
Hasterok, Robert
Keywords: 5-azacitidine; Brachypodium; Cell death tissue culture
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 19, iss. 6 (2018), Art. no. 1806
Abstract: Morphological and histological observations revealed that, at a concentration of 50 µM, 5-azacitidine (5-azaC) totally inhibited the induction of embryogenic masses (EM), while the cultivation of explants (zygotic embryos; ZEs) in the presence of 5 µM of 5-azaC led to the formation of a callus with EM in 10% of the cases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyzes revealed the presence of the morphological and ultrastructural features that are typical for the vacuolar type of cell death in the callus cells that were treated. A TUNEL assay confirmed the presence of DNA double-strand breaks for the callus cells that had been treated with both 5 and 50 µM 5-azaC concentrations. Analysis of the gene expression of selected cell death markers demonstrated a reduced expression of metacaspase, protein executer 1 (EX1), and thioredoxin (TRX) in the callus cells that had been treated compared to the control culture. The strongest increase in the gene activity was characteristic for glutathione S-transferase (GST). Our studies also included an analysis of the distribution of some arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensin epitopes, which can be used as markers of cells that are undergoing death in a Brachypodium distachyon tissue culture.
DOI: 10.3390/ijms19061806
ISSN: 1661-6596
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