|Abstract: ||This study is a pedagogically-historical monograph devoted to the analysis of
opinions concerning the evolution of Polish system of proceeding with criminals. The author
focused her attention on social activities and crime prevention as well as on the development of
rehabilitative and prison pedagogy and social practices. In the study the author used original
sources, magazines “Przegląd Więziennictwa Polskiego” (“Review of Polish Prison System”),
“W służbie penitencjarnej” (“Serving Prison System”), “Szkoła Specjalna” (“Special School”),
archives, rulebooks, statutes, precepts and diaries. This study comprises contributions of social
practices and various fields of knowledge to the development of theoretical and practical aspects of
dealing with criminals. The author concentrated her efforts on the analysis of the publications
from between the First and the Second World War as that time saw the emergence of many bright
ideas about the aims and roles of reformatory work and about protecting sociely from criminals.
The ideas developed at that time strongly influenced the ways of dealing with criminals in the
second part of the 20th century.
The author presented two ways of exerting influence on culprits. The first one concerns
rehabilitation of criminals. Initially, the only subjects of rehabilitative practices were juvenile
criminals, children and teenagers. In late 1930s, these practices included also adult criminals. The
second way consists in the social isolation of criminals and in the social defense.
Educational practices were supported by social prevention, which was meant to protect
endangered individuals and to lower the crime rate. In the late 1930s it was proposed to introduce
some ideas from prison and crime pedagogy to correctional facilities. This was a result of the
advances made in therapeutic pedagogy and special educalion, that is the education of children
and teenagers with developmental anomalies.
The study is based on the materials devoted to the theories of criminals’ rehabilitation and to
the development of the Polish prison system under all partitions, especially under the Russian and
Austrian ones. In her work the author included theories of certain scholars and their short
biographies, the activity of prominent representatives of penal and executive law, medicine,
pedagogy, social welfare and creators of modern prison system and reform schools. She also took
into consideration parliamentary discussions, educational conventions as well as activities of the
Church, religious unions and social organizations. She also referred to inlemational activities of
certain individuals and associations.
The work comprises five chapters. The first one is devoted to dealing with criminals until
1918. The author presented the realization of the progressive celi system and the problem of
isolation and penance as far as criminals are concerned. She discussed the works of eminent prison
specialists, the development of charities occupied with crime prevention and the problem of
criminals rehabilitation from various philosophical perspectives.
In the second chapter the author discussed the problem of prison system from the legislative
perspective as well as the rehabilitation of juvenile criminals and some potential origins of crime.
She analyzed criminal and biological research, the issues tackled at prison congresses and the role
fulfilled by “Archiwum Kryminologiczne” (“Criminological Archive”) in the development of
criminal proceedings.In the third chapter of her work the author examined the contribution of medical research to
the knowledge about criminals and to the etiology of crime. She also discussed the importance of
conferences held by Polish physidans and naturalisls and to the role occupicd by eugenics, social
medicine and hygiene in the development of prison practices and in the humanization of dealing
The fourth chapter o f this study is devoted to the development of therapeutic pedagogy and
social welfare perceived from the perspective of reformatory oducation. The author looked at the
I Convention of Special School Teachers and at the improvement in child welfare (orphanages,
dormitories, reformatory schools).
In the last chapter of the study the author presented the development of social practices in
prisons and participation of social communities in the work with juvenile and adult criminals. She
based this part of the work on rules of law, the legał code of 1932 and percepts from 1939, which
are all concemed with rehabilitation of prisoners and the role of individualization in prison
practices. This work also includes a conclusion, a bibliography, a name index and an appcndix.|