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dc.contributor.authorSzpak, Jacek-
dc.identifier.citationZ. Hojka, K. Nowak (red.), "Turystyka historyczna. T. 1" (S. 127-147). Katowice : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiegopl_PL
dc.description.abstractThe Marian devotion was of a particular importance in the Polish Catholicism. The Marian shrines appeared in Poland in the twelfth century but the development of Marian devotion in the Polish territories reached its peak in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Order of St. Paul the First Hermit (Pauline) played a special role in its spread and development in Poland. The first Pauline institution in Poland was the monastery in Częstochowa, founded by the Duke Ladislaus of Opole in 1382. Pilgrimage plays a huge role in Polish Catholicism. Representatives of all social groups used to go on pilgrimage. In addition to pilgrimages on foot, at the turn of the century they began to organize bicycle tours, rail or railway‑walking. Most pilgrims came to Marian shrines on certain holidays. This involved the solemn celebrations and the possibility of obtaining indulgences. The main Marian celebrations (indulgences) at Jasna Góra took place: on September 8th (the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary), August 15th (the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary), first Wednesday after 24th of August (the Feast of the Our Lady of Częstochowa, since 1931 moved to August 26th). The Jasna Góra Sanctuary became a pilgrimage movement destination in the fourteenth century. In total, in the years 1864–1914 around 25,500 pilgrim groups and approx. 1,000,000 people, from at least 2,300 villages, arrived to Jasna Góra. Each of the pilgrimage groups totalled up to approx. 300 people. On the other hand, the Leśniów Catholic pilgrimage site was visited by most pilgrims on July 2nd, when it celebrated a festive indulgence. Jasna Góra and Leśniów were the destinations for the individual pilgrims, too. From the fourteenth to the nineteenth century, the Marian shrine in Częstochowa was a place of worship for pilgrims from: Poland, England, Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, Spisz and Orava, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, France and Italy. In the years of partitions of Poland (1795–1914) pilgrims came from all three sectors and from the Upper Silesia region. The sanctuary in Leśniów gathered pilgrims from different regions of the First Polish Republic, Hungary (now Slovakia) and Silesia. Some of the pilgrimages were organized annually. The faithful from the province of Kraków, the Principality of Siewierskie and Upper Silesia dominated amongst the pilgrims going to Leśniów monastery. Frequently, these pilgrims came from the villages located within the distance of 100 km. There were, however, much greater distances that some pilgrims travelled, e.g. from Żywiec – approx. 130 km. Pilgrimages to Marian shrines contributed to strengthening the religious, social and political ties. Numerous centers of pilgrimage played the role of cultural and educational institutions. The presence at Jasna Góra gave the pilgrims, especially from the lower classes of the society, the opportunity to get acquainted with the history of Poland. The cult of Our Lady Queen of Poland was of especially great importance. Therefore, the invaders tried at all costs to interfere in its fostering.pl_PL
dc.publisherKatowice : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiegopl_PL
dc.rightsUznanie autorstwa-Użycie niekomercyjne-Bez utworów zależnych 3.0 Polska*
dc.subjectthe Order of St. Paul the First Hermit (Pauline)pl_PL
dc.subjectJasna Górapl_PL
dc.subjectthe Virgin Marypl_PL
dc.titlePaulińskie sanktuaria maryjne na pograniczu małopolsko-śląskim w XVIII i XIX wiekupl_PL
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