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Title: Synthesis and Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of 4,7-diamino- 1,10-phenanthrolines and Their Precursors
Authors: Nycz, Jacek E.
Wantulok, Jakub
Sokolova, Romana
Pajchel, Łukasz
Stankevič, Marek
Szala, Marcin
Małecki, Jan Grzegorz
Swoboda, Daniel
Keywords: phenanthroline; amination; cyclic voltammetry; 15N-NMR; cyclization; heterocyclic; DFt; oxidative nucleophilic substitutions of hydrogen
Issue Date: 2019
Citation: Molecules, Vol. 24 (2019), Art. No. 4102
Abstract: New approaches to the synthesis of 4,7-dichloro-1,10-phenanthrolines and their corresponding 9H-carbazol-9-yl-, 10H-phenothiazin-10-yl- and pyrrolidin-1-yl derivatives were developed. Their properties have been characterized by a combination of several techniques: MS, HRMS, GC-MS, electronic absorption spectroscopy and multinuclear NMR in both solution and solid state including 15N CP/MAS NMR. The structures of 5-fluoro-2,9-dimethyl-4,7-di(pyrrolidin- 1-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline (5d), 4,7-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9-oxo-9,10-dihydro-1,10-phenanthroline-5- carbonitrile (6a) and 4,7-di(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline-5-carbonitrile (6b) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The nucleophilic substitutions of hydrogen followed by oxidation produced compounds 6a and 6b. The electrochemical properties of selected 1,10-phenanthrolines were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and compared with commercially available reference 1,10-phenanthrolin-5-amine (5l). The spatial distribution of frontier molecular orbitals of the selected compounds has been calculated by density functional theory (DFT). It was shown that potentials of reduction and oxidation were in consistence with the level of HOMO and LUMO energies.
DOI: 10.3390/molecules24224102
ISSN: 1420-3049
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