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Title: Theoretical and experimental investigations of large stokes shift fluorophores based on a quinoline scaffold
Authors: Czaplińska, Barbara
Malarz, Katarzyna
Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna
Słodek, Aneta
Korzec, Mateusz
Musioł, Robert
Keywords: green fluorophores; quinoline; large Stokes shift; intramolecular charge transfer
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: "Molecules" Vol. 25, iss. 11 (2020), art. no. 2488
Abstract: A series of novel styrylquinolines with the benzylidene imine moiety were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized for their applicability in cellular staining. The spectroscopic study revealed absorption in the ultraviolet–visible region (360–380 nm) and emission that covered the blue-green range of the light (above 500 nm). The fluorescence quantum yields were also determined, which amounted to 0.079 in the best-case scenario. The structural features that are behind these values are also discussed. An analysis of the spectroscopic properties and the theoretical calculations indicated the charge-transfer character of an emission, which was additionally evaluated using the Lippert–Mataga equation. Changes in geometry in the ground and excited states, which had a significant influence on the emission process, are also discussed. Additionally, the capability of the newly synthesized compounds for cellular staining was also investigated. These small molecules could effectively penetrate through the cellular membrane. Analyses of the images that were obtained with several of the tested styrylquinolines indicated their accumulation in organelles such as the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.
DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112488
ISSN: 1420-3049
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