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Title: Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: an application of sodium trithiocarbonate and wastewater toxicity assessment
Authors: Thomas, Maciej
Kozik, Violetta
Bąk, Andrzej
Barbusiński, Krzysztof
Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna
Jampilek, Josef
Keywords: galvanic wastewater; heavy metals; sodium trithiocarbonate; B. plicatilis; toxicity; entral composite design; response surface methodology
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "Materials" (2021), iss. 3, art. no. 655, s. 1-18
Abstract: The synthesis and application of sodium trithiocarbonate (Na2CS3) for the treatment of real galvanic wastewater in order to remove heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) was investigated. A Central Composite Design/Response Surface Methodology (CCD/RSM) was employed to optimize the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Adequacy of approximated data was verified using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The calculated coefficients of determination (R2 and R2 adj) were 0.9119 and 0.8532, respectively. Application of Na2CS3 conjugated with CCD/RSM allowed Cu, Cd and Zn levels to be decreased and, as a consequence, åCu,Cd,Zn decreased by 99.80%, 97.78%, 99.78%, and 99.69%, respectively, by using Na2CS3 at 533 mg/L and pH 9.7, within 23 min. Implementation of conventional metal precipitation reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and CaO) at pH 11 within 23 min only decreased åCu,Cd,Zn by 90.84%, 93.97% and 93.71%, respectively. Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was used to conduct the assessment of wastewater toxicity. Following the application of Na2CS3, after 60 min the mortality of B. plicatilis was reduced from 90% to 25%. Engagement of Na2CS3 under optimal conditions caused the precipitation of heavy metals from the polluted wastewater and significantly decreased wastewater toxicity. In summary, Na2CS3 can be used as an effective heavy metal precipitating agent, especially for Cu, Cd and Zn.
DOI: 10.3390/ma14030655
ISSN: 1996-1944
Appears in Collections:Artykuły (WNŚiT)

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