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Title: Submerged Eutectic-assisted, solvent-free mechanochemical formation of a propranolol salt and its other multicomponent solids
Authors: Białek, Klaudia
Wojnarowska, Żaneta
Skotnicki, Marcin
Twamley, Brendan
Paluch, Marian
Tajber, Lidia
Keywords: propranolol; capric acid; salt; eutectic; submerged eutectic; mechanochemistry; solidstate
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "Pharmaceutics" (2021), iss. 12, art. no. 2125, s. 1-20
Abstract: Salt preparation via a solid-state reaction offers a solution to challenges posed by current pharmaceutical research, which include combining development of novel forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients with greener, sustainable synthesis. This work investigated in detail the mechanism of salt formation between propranolol (PRO) and capric acid (CAP) and explored the solid eutectic phases comprising this salt, propranolol caprate (PRC). The salt structure was solved by X-ray diffraction, and the properties in the crystalline and supercooled states were fully characterised using thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). PRC forms via a submerged eutectic phase composed of PRO and CAP, below room temperature, by mechanochemistry without an extra input of energy. Two other solid eutectic phases are composed of PRC and either CAP or PRO, at 0.28 and 0.82 mol fraction of PRO, respectively. BDS indicated that the supercooled PRC has ionic character, whereas the supercooled PRC-PRO eutectic had predominantly non-ionic properties despite comprising the salt. In conclusion, knowledge of the mechanism of formation of multicomponent systems can help in designing more sustainable pharmaceutical processes.
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13122125
ISSN: 1999-4923
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