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Title: The usefulness of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis to study dietary supplements containing iron
Authors: Jendrzejewska, Izabela
Musioł, Robert
Goryczka, Tomasz
Pietrasik, Ewa
Klimontko, Joanna
Jampilek, Josef
Keywords: dietary supplements; X-ray powder diffraction; qualitative phase analysis; thermal analysis
Issue Date: 2022
Citation: "Molecules" (2022), iss. 1, art. no. 197, s. 1-25
Abstract: X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry/ derivative of thermogravimetry (DSC/DTG)) are solid-state techniques that can be successfully used to identify and quantify various chemical compounds in polycrystalline mixtures, such as dietary supplements or drugs. In this work, 31 dietary supplements available on the Polish market that contain iron compounds, namely iron gluconate, fumarate, bisglycinate, citrate and pyrophosphate, were evaluated. The aim of the work was to identify iron compounds declared by the manufacturer as food supplements and to try to verify compliance with the manufacturer’s claims. Studies performed by X-ray and thermal analysis confirmed that crystalline iron compounds (iron (II) gluconate, iron (II) fumarate), declared by the manufacturers, were present in the investigated dietary supplements. Iron (II) bisglycinate proved to be semi-crystalline. However, depending on the composition of the formulation, it was possible to identify this compound in the tested supplements. For amorphous iron compounds (iron (III) citrate and iron (III) pyrophosphate), the diffraction pattern does not have characteristic diffraction lines. Food supplements containing crystalline iron compounds have a melting point close to the melting point of pure iron compounds. The presence of excipients was found to affect the shapes and positions of the endothermic peaks significantly. Widening of endothermic peaks and changes in their position were observed, as well as exothermic peaks indicating crystallization of amorphous compounds. Weight loss was determined for all dietary supplements tested. Analysis of the DTG curves showed that the thermal decomposition of most food supplements takes place in several steps. The results obtained by a combination of both simple, relatively fast and reliable XRPD and DSC/DTG methods are helpful in determining phase composition, pharmaceutical abnormalities or by detecting the presence of the correct polymorphic form.
DOI: 10.3390/molecules27010197
ISSN: 1420-3049
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