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Title: An analysis of the effects of vancomycin and/or vancomycin-resistant Citrobacter freundii exposure on the microbial community structure in soil
Authors: Cycoń, Mariusz
Borymski, Sławomir
Orlewska, Kamila
Wąsik, Tomasz J.
Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Citrobacter freundii; Vancomycin; Soil
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 7 (2016), art. no. 1015)
Abstract: The occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in the environment has become a subject of growing concern. The extensive use of vancomycin and other pharmaceuticals may alter the biodiversity of soil microbial communities and select antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of vancomycin and/or vancomycin-resistant Citrobacter freundii on soil microbial communities using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) approaches. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with the following treatments: Control soil (C), soil with vancomycin (1 mg/kg soil-VA1), soil with vancomycin (10 mg/kg soil-VA10), soil with C. freundii (Cit), soil with vancomycin (1 mg/kg soil) and C. freundii (VA1+Cit), and soil with vancomycin (10 mg/kg soil) and C. freundii (VA10+Cit). A bacterial strain resistant to vancomycin was isolated from raw sewage collected from the municipal sewage treatment plant. The obtained results indicated that the antibiotic and/or the bacterial strain exerted a selective pressure that resulted in qualitative and quantitative changes in the population of soil microorganisms. However, a multivariate analysis showed that the genetic and structural diversity of the soil microbial community was primarily affected by the incubation time and to a lesser extent by the antibiotic and introduced bacteria. DGGE analysis clearly showed that certain species within the bacterial community were sensitive to vancomycin as was evidenced by a decrease in the values of S (richness) and H (Shannon-Wiener) indices. Moreover, a PLFA method-based analysis revealed alterations in the structure of the soil microbial community as indicated by changes in the biomass of the PLFA biomarkers specific for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. The changes observed in the community of soil microorganisms may decrease the rate of microbial-mediated processes, which can lead to a disturbance in the ecological balance of the soil ecosystem.
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01015
ISSN: 1664-302X
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